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GOLD Staging System for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) Severity

 

Definition

COPD is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually both progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases.

GOLD Staging System for COPD Severity

Stage

Description

Findings (based on postbronchodilator FEV1)

0

At risk

Risk factors and chronic symptoms but normal spirometry

I

Mild

FEV1/FVC ratio less than 70 percent

FEV1 at least 80 percent of predicted value

May have symptoms

II

Moderate

FEV1/FVC ratio less than 70 percent

FEV1 50 percent to less than 80 percent of predicted value

May have chronic symptoms

III

Severe

FEV1/FVC ratio less than 70 percent

FEV1 30 percent to less than 50 percent of predicted value

May have chronic symptoms

IV

Very severe

FEV1/FVC ratio less than 70 percent

FEV1 less than 30 percent of predicted value

   or

FEV1 less than 50 percent of predicted value plus severe chronic symptoms

GOLD = Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC = forced vital capacity.

References:

  1. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Updated 2005. Accessed online April 01, 2006. [Summary]

  2. Dewar M, Curry RW Jr. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: diagnostic considerations. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Feb 15;73(4):669-76. [Medline]

  3. Pierson DJ. Clinical practice guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review and comparison of current resources. Respir Care. 2006 Mar;51(3):277-88. [Medline]

Created: April 01, 2006
Last Modified: 04/01/2006