New Diagnostic Criteria for Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID)

Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVIDs) are the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency condition in adults. The genetic basis for the condition is not known and no single clinical feature or laboratory test can establish the diagnosis; it has been a diagnosis of exclusion. In areas of uncertainty, diagnostic criteria can provide valuable clinical information. Continue reading

WHO Normal Reference Ranges for Semen Quality

Semen analysis is the most important investigation of male subfertility. This is not a test for fertility but a guide for minimal standards of adequacy. What constitutes a ‘normal’ result has been a matter of debate, and recently the WHO normal ranges for semen parameters have changed.

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Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection

Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. Continue reading

Approved Indications for Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. Continue reading

Universal Definitions of Myocardial Injury and Myocardial Infarction

With the introduction of more sensitive cardiac biomarkers, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) collaborated to redefine MI using a biochemical and clinical approach, and reported that myocardial injury detected by abnormal biomarkers in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia should be labelled as MI. Continue reading

Chronic Adaptations to Physical Training (PT)

Long-term responses that develop over a period of time (usually a minimum of 6 weeks) when training is repeated regularly are referred to as chronic adaptations to training. The combined effect of all chronic adaptations is known as the training effect.
Chronic adaptations to training may occur in the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. The result of these physiological adaptations is an improvement in performance. Continue reading

Helicobacter pylori Infection in Peptic Ulcer Disease

Endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease. Apart from  exclusion of malignant disease, detection of H pylori infection with histology or rapid urease tests is essential to the subsequent treatment plan.  Continue reading