DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, by negative symptoms such as decreased motivation and diminished expressiveness, and by cognitive deficits involving impaired executive functions, memory, and speed of mental processing. Continue reading

Classification of Ulcer-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

The Forrest classification is a widely used classification of ulcer-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It was initially developed to unify the description of ulcer bleeding for better communication amongst endoscopists. However, the Forrest Classification is now used as a tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk for bleeding, rebleeding and mortality. Continue reading

Acute Hypertensive Definitions in the Pregnant Patient

Hypertensive disorders are common during pregnancy and can be classified into four pregnancy-associated categories: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) gestational hypertension, (3) preeclampsia, and (4) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. In addition, non-pregnancy associated hypertensive emergencies can occur in the pregnant patient. Continue reading

Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a neurological sensorimotor disease often profoundly disturbing sleep and quality of life has variable expression influenced by genetic, environmental and medical factors. The symptoms vary considerably in frequency from less than once a month or year to daily and severity from mildly annoying to disabling. Symptoms may also remit for various periods of time. Continue reading

Revised Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals’ daily activities. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for the Brugada Syndrome (BrS)

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare inherited arrhythmia syndrome leading to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, despite a structurally normal heart. Diagnosis is based on a specific electrocardiogram pattern, observed either spontaneously or during a sodium channel blocker test. Continue reading

Features of Congenital Zika Syndrome

The majority (50 to 80%) of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic ZIKV infection has an incubation period of 3 to 14 days and is a mild illness, with a duration of up to 1 week, that manifests as a rash, low-grade fever, arthralgia and myalgia, and conjunctivitis. Complications are infrequent, but when they occur, they are severe and may be fatal. Continue reading