2018 ESC/ESH Classification of Arterial Hypertension

The relationship between BP and cardiovascular (CV) and renal events is continuous, making the distinction between normotension and hypertension, based on cut-off BP values, somewhat arbitrary. However, in practice, cut-off BP values are used for pragmatic reasons to simplify the diagnosis and decisions about treatment. Continue reading

Nutrition Information for Cooked Seafood

Fish and other types of seafood are an important source of protein worldwide. Fish and seafood also are sources of other important nutrients, including the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA), which are associated with reduced heart disease risk.
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Nutrition Facts for Raw Fruits

Fruits and vegetables are low in fat, salt and sugar. They are a good source of dietary fibre. As part of a well-balanced, regular diet and a healthy, active lifestyle, a high intake of fruit and vegetables can help you to:

  • Reduce obesity and maintain a healthy weight
  • Lower your cholesterol
  • Lower your blood pressure. Continue reading

Nutrition Information for Raw Vegetables

Fresh vegetables are naturally low in fat, salt and sugar, making them an excellent food choice.
Vegetables provide energy, vitamins, minerals and fibre and there is growing evidence of additional health benefits from a range of phytonutrients. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a frequently fatal and likely underdiagnosed disease involving a final common pathway of hypercytokinemia, which can result in end-organ damage and death.
Although an early diagnosis is crucial to decrease mortality, the definitive diagnosis is often challenging because of the lack of specificity of currently accepted diagnostic criteria and the absence of confirmatory gold standards. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH)

The diagnosis of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is based on histological and immunophenotypic examination of lesional tissue. The main feature is the morphologic identification of the characteristic LCH cells. Additionally, positive staining of the lesional cells with CD1a and/or Langerin (CD207) is required for definitive diagnosis. Continue reading

Diagnosis of Diabetes Insipidus (DI)

Diabetes insipidus is a disease in which large volumes of dilute urine (polyuria) are excreted due to vasopressin (AVP) deficiency [central diabetes insipidus (CDI)], AVP resistance [nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)], or excessive water intake (primary polydipsia). Polyuria is characterized by a urine volume in excess of 2 l/m2/24 h or approximately 150 ml/kg/24 h at birth, 100–110 ml/kg/24 h until the age of 2 years and 40–50 ml/kg/24 h in the older child and adult. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (CAPS)

The Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (CAPS) is a rare life-threatening form of Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) in which widespread intravascular thrombosis results in multiorgan ischemia and failure. CAPS is the initial presentation of APS in nearly half of patients, while the remaining half has a history of APS. Continue reading

2012 SLICC Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

SLICC classification criteria improved the clinical relevance of the ACR criteria, incorporated recent findings on the immunology of SLE, and resolved several problems attributed to the ACR criteria.

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