Definitions and Classification of Office Blood Pressure Levels (2013 ESH/ESC)

The recommended classification is unchanged from the 2003 and 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines. Hypertension is defined as values >/=140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or >/=90 mmHg diastolic blood pressure (DBP), based on the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that in patients with these blood pressure (BP) values treatment-induced BP reductions are beneficial.

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Indications for Ambulatory Electrocardiography (AECG)

There are numerous potential clinical uses of the 12-lead ECG. The ECG may reflect changes associated with primary or secondary myocardial processes (e.g., those associated with coronary artery disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, or infiltrative disorders), metabolic and electrolyte abnormalities, and therapeutic or toxic effects of drugs or devices. Electrocardiography serves as the gold standard for the noninvasive diagnosis of arrhythmias and conduction disturbances, and it occasionally is the only marker for the presence of heart disease.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Marfan Syndrome (MFS)

Marfan syndrome is currently diagnosed using criteria based on an evaluation of the family history, molecular data, and 6 organ systems.

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Indications for Aortic Valve Replacement (AVR) in Aortic Stenosis (AS)

Aortic valve stenosis is usually defined by restricted systolic opening of the valve leaflets, with a mean transvalvular pressure gradient of at least 10 mm Hg.

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Classification for Chagas Cardiomyopathy

Chagas’ disease is caused by a protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, that is transmitted to humans through the feces of infected bloodsucking insects in endemic areas of Latin America, or occasionally by nonvectorial mechanisms, such as blood transfusion. Cardiac involvement, which typically appears decades after the initial infection, may result in cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular aneurysm, congestive heart failure, thromboembolism, and sudden cardiac death.

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Clinical Indications and Contraindications to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)

Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) include percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stenting. Primary indications are treatment of angina pectoris (stable or unstable), myocardial ischemia, and acute MI (particularly in patients with developing or established cardiogenic shock).

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Current Indications for Use of the Swan-Ganz Catheter

The Swan-Ganz balloon flotation catheter was introduced  in clinical use by H. J. C. Swan and William Ganz in 1970. Since then, the catheter has been used in many kinds of clinical fields, such as critical care medicine, cardiovascular surgery, anesthesia, and cardiology, because of its useful functions.
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Recommendations for the Use of Ambulatory Blood-Pressure Monitoring

In addition to the prediction of cardiovascular risk, ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring, when used in conjunction with clinic blood-pressure assessments, is of potential value in a variety of other clinical conditions. Some of these conditions are:

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Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery

Clinical Predictors of Increased Perioperative Cardiovascular Risk (Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, Death)

Major
Unstable coronary syndromes

  • Acute or recent MI* with evidence of important ischemic risk by clinical symptoms or noninvasive study
  • Unstable or severe† angina (Canadian class III or IV) Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Myocarditis

Myocarditis may present with a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild dyspnea or chest pain that resolves without specific therapy to cardiogenic shock and death. Dilated cardiomyopathy with chronic heart failure is the major long-term sequela of myocarditis. Most often, myocarditis results from common viral infections; less commonly, specific forms of myocarditis may result from other pathogens, toxic or hypersensitivity drug reactions, giant-cell myocarditis, or sarcoidosis.  Continue reading