Inhalation injury can feature supraglottic thermal injury, chemical irritation of the respiratory tract, systemic toxicity due to agents such as carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide, or a combination of these insults. The resultant inflammatory response may cause higher fluid resuscitation volumes, progressive pulmonary dysfunction, prolonged
ventilator days, increased risk of pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Continue reading →
A vegetative state is absence of responsiveness and awareness due to overwhelming dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres, with sufficient sparing of the diencephalon and brain stem to preserve autonomic and motor reflexes and sleep-wake cycles.
A patient without an obvious need was defined as one who did not require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation or as one who did not have hypotension requiring vasopressors while in the emergency department. Risk increases proportionally with the presence of more than three criteria.
Of the sedation scales described, the Riker Sedation–Agitation Scale and the Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale are the most commonly reported, but in head-to-head comparison, neither is demonstrably superior Sedation Scales for Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Although the use of resuscitation fluids is one of the most common interventions in medicine, no currently available resuscitation fluid can be considered to be ideal. In light of recent highquality evidence, a reappraisal of how resuscitation fluids are used in acutely ill patients is now required. The selection, timing, and doses of intravenous fluids should be evaluated as carefully as they are in the case of any other intravenous drug, with the aim of maximizing efficacy and minimizing iatrogenic toxicity.