A vegetative state is absence of responsiveness and awareness due to overwhelming dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres, with sufficient sparing of the diencephalon and brain stem to preserve autonomic and motor reflexes and sleep-wake cycles.
Fat embolism syndrome, a condition characterized by hypoxia, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and mental status change.
A patient without an obvious need was defined as one who did not require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation or as one who did not have hypotension requiring vasopressors while in the emergency department. Risk increases proportionally with the presence of more than three criteria.
Two scales are in common use, the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC).
Of the sedation scales described, the Riker Sedation–Agitation Scale and the Richmond Agitation–Sedation Scale are the most commonly reported, but in head-to-head comparison, neither is demonstrably superior Sedation Scales for Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Although the use of resuscitation fluids is one of the most common interventions in medicine, no currently available resuscitation fluid can be considered to be ideal. In light of recent highquality evidence, a reappraisal of how resuscitation fluids are used in acutely ill patients is now required. The selection, timing, and doses of intravenous fluids should be evaluated as carefully as they are in the case of any other intravenous drug, with the aim of maximizing efficacy and minimizing iatrogenic toxicity.
Hypothermia may be determined clinically on the basis of vital signs with the use of the Swiss staging system.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an essential link in the chain of survival for treating cardiac arrest.
The SOFA system was created in a consensus meeting of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine in 1994 and further revised in 1996. The SOFA is a six-organ dysfunction/failure score measuring multiple organ failure daily. Each organ is graded from 0 (normal) to 4 (the most abnormal), providing a daily score of 0 to 24 points. The objective in the development of the SOFA was to create a simple, reliable, and continuous score easily obtained in every institution.