Lennard-Jones Diagnostic Criteria of Crohn’s Disease (CD)

Once the clinical suspicion is established, the diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical, endoscopic, histological and/or radiological criteria. Continue reading

Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition of the large intestine that is frequently associated with inflammation of the rectum but often extends proximally to involve additional areas of the colon. Once a diagnosis of UC is made, determining the severity of disease becomes important. Continue reading

Indications for Testing for Helicobacter pylori Infection

Testing for H. pylori is recommended in patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, or gastric mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Other recommended indications for testing include dyspepsia, prolonged use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or aspirin, unexplained iron-deficiency anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia. Continue reading

Approved Indications for Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. Continue reading

Helicobacter pylori Infection in Peptic Ulcer Disease

Endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease. Apart from  exclusion of malignant disease, detection of H pylori infection with histology or rapid urease tests is essential to the subsequent treatment plan.  Continue reading

CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS)

In 2005, the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS) was established to provide a means of classifying findings of CT colonography (CTC) and of applying the advantages of structured reporting to the setting of colorectal cancer screening.CT Continue reading

Criteria for Grading Hepatic Encephalopathy

Grading of hepatic encephalopathy categorizes it in clinical stages of stepwise worsening. The description of each grade varies somewhat in the literature, but differences between adjacent grades are clear enough to be helpful in clinical practice, although neurologic descriptors are sparse. One study showed that for patients who become comatose, the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score is more discriminating than the West Haven grading system because it includes brain-stem and respiration assessment, which are not further differentiated in the West Haven system.

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Diagnostic Criteria of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by an inflammatory and fibrotic process centered on the epithelium, leading to diffuse biliary stenosis and increased wall thickness throughout the intra- and extra-hepatic biliary trees.

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Rome III Criteria for Functional Dyspepsia (FD)

According to the Rome III criteria, functional dyspepsia is defined as the presence of one or more of the following: postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain or burning and no evidence of structural disease (including at upper endoscopy) to explain the symptoms.

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Histologic Scoring Systems for Chronic Liver Disease

Grading and staging refers to a semiquantitative assessment of the necroinflammatory activity (grade) and degree of fibrosis (stage) in relation to chronic hepatitis.

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