WHO Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues

The World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms updated in 2008 represents a worldwide consensus on the diagnosis of these tumors and is based on the recognition of distinct diseases, using a multidisciplinary approach.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Plasma Cell Myeloma (PCM)

The definition of plasma cell myeloma (PCM) has rested on identifying clinical and laboratory features that predict when a sufficient burden of plasma cells has accumulated that the patient will benefit from treatment.

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Features of the Thalassemias

The thalassemias are a group of inherited hematologic disorders caused by defects in the synthesis of one or more of the hemoglobin chains. Alpha thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of alpha globin chains, and beta thalassemia is caused by reduced or absent synthesis of beta globin chains. Imbalances of globin chains cause hemolysis and impair erythropoiesis.

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Laboratory Findings in Various Platelet and Coagulation Disorders

A peripheral-blood smear is a vital investigation tool in most cases to confirm a low platelet count and the presence or absence of other diagnostic features, such as red-cell fragmentation, platelet morphologic abnormalities, or evidence of dysplasia or hematinic deficiency.

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Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a clinicopathological diagnosis of a disorder that is defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) as “an acquired syndrome characterized by the intravascular activation of coagulation with loss of localization arising from different causes”. This condition typically originates in the microvasculature and can cause damage of such severity that it leads to organ dysfunction. It can be identified on the basis of a scoring system developed by the ISTH.

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Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)

The diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) requires that a patient be anemic and show laboratory evidence of iron deficiency. Red blood cells in IDA are usually described as being microcytic (i.e., mean corpuscular volume less than 80 um3 [80 fL]) and hypochromic, however the manifestation of iron deficiency occurs in several stages.

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Guidelines for the Clinical Use of Red Cell Transfusions

The red blood cell transfusions should not be dictated by a single hemoglobin “trigger” but instead should be based on the patient’s risks of developing complications of inadequate oxygenation. Red blood cell transfusion is rarely indicated when the hemoglobin concentration is greater than 10 g/dL and is almost always indicated when it is less than 6 g/dL.

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Diagnosis of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA)

Two criteria must be diagnose AIHA: serologic evidence of an autoantibody and clinical or laboratory evidence of hemolysis. Serologic evidence of an autoantibody is provided by positive autocontrol and direct antiglobulin test (DAT, direct Coombs´ test) results and subsequent identification of an autoantibody in the RBC eluate and possibly the serum. Serum reactivity with autologous RBCs generally indicates the presence of an autoantibody, but it does not exclude the presence of an autoantibody.

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Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited syndrome characterized by abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis. This failure leads to the clinical manifestations of non-infectious and non-malignant lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune pathology, most commonly, autoimmune cytopenias.

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Wells Clinical Prediction Rule for Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Venous Thrombosis

Wells Clinical Prediction Rule for Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Continue reading