The 2017 McDonald Criteria for Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical clinically isolated syndrome, define what is needed to fulfil dissemination in time and space of lesions in the CNS, and stress the need for no better explanation for the presentation. Continue reading

Revised Criteria for the Clinical Diagnosis of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)

The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these.
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MDS Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson’s Disease (PD)

The prerequisite to apply the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-PD) criteria is the diagnosis of parkinsonism, which is based on three cardinal motor manifestations. Parkinsonism is defined as bradykinesia, in combination with either rest tremor, rigidity, or both. These features must be clearly demonstrable and not attributable to confounding factors. Continue reading

The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) Version 2.1a or Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire

Section 1: Pain Intensity

  • I have no pain at the moment. [0 points]
  • The pain is very mild at the moment. [1 point]
  • The pain is moderate at the moment. [2 points]
  • The pain is fairly severe at the moment. [3 points]
  • The pain is very severe at the moment. [4 points]
  • The pain is the worst imaginable at the moment. [5 points]

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Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)

The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), an accepted method of quantifying disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) consists of an eight-function system scale monitoring motor, sensory, cerebellar, brain stem, visual, bowel and bladder, pyramidal and other functions.

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Spetzler–Martin Grading Scale for Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain

Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.

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