The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical clinically isolated syndrome, define what is needed to fulfil dissemination in time and space of lesions in the CNS, and stress the need for no better explanation for the presentation. Continue reading
The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these.
This simplified revised set of diagnostic criteria may facilitate its more uniform and widespread applicability in different clinical scenarios and environments. Continue reading
The prerequisite to apply the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-PD) criteria is the diagnosis of parkinsonism, which is based on three cardinal motor manifestations. Parkinsonism is defined as bradykinesia, in combination with either rest tremor, rigidity, or both. These features must be clearly demonstrable and not attributable to confounding factors. Continue reading
The MMSE is an easily administered 30-point test of cognitive function and contains tests of orientation, working and episodic memory, language comprehension, naming, and copying.
Section 1: Pain Intensity
- I have no pain at the moment. [0 points]
- The pain is very mild at the moment. [1 point]
- The pain is moderate at the moment. [2 points]
- The pain is fairly severe at the moment. [3 points]
- The pain is very severe at the moment. [4 points]
- The pain is the worst imaginable at the moment. [5 points]
The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), an accepted method of quantifying disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) consists of an eight-function system scale monitoring motor, sensory, cerebellar, brain stem, visual, bowel and bladder, pyramidal and other functions.
Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.
The cardinal features of acute spinal cord compression are relatively symmetric paralysis of the limbs, urinary retention or incontinence, and a circumferential boundary below which there is loss of sensation, referred to as the “sensory level”.
Inclusion body myositis is the most common myopathy in patients over the age of 40 years encountered in neurological practice. Although it is usually sporadic, there is increasing awareness of the influence of genetic factors on disease susceptibility and clinical phenotype. The diagnosis is based on recognition of the distinctive pattern of muscle involvement and temporal profile of the disease, and the combination of inflammatory and myodegenerative changes and protein deposits in the muscle biopsy.