The MMSE is an easily administered 30-point test of cognitive function and contains tests of orientation, working and episodic memory, language comprehension, naming, and copying.
Section 1: Pain Intensity
- I have no pain at the moment. [0 points]
- The pain is very mild at the moment. [1 point]
- The pain is moderate at the moment. [2 points]
- The pain is fairly severe at the moment. [3 points]
- The pain is very severe at the moment. [4 points]
- The pain is the worst imaginable at the moment. [5 points]
The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), an accepted method of quantifying disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) consists of an eight-function system scale monitoring motor, sensory, cerebellar, brain stem, visual, bowel and bladder, pyramidal and other functions.
Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.
The cardinal features of acute spinal cord compression are relatively symmetric paralysis of the limbs, urinary retention or incontinence, and a circumferential boundary below which there is loss of sensation, referred to as the “sensory level”.
Inclusion body myositis is the most common myopathy in patients over the age of 40 years encountered in neurological practice. Although it is usually sporadic, there is increasing awareness of the influence of genetic factors on disease susceptibility and clinical phenotype. The diagnosis is based on recognition of the distinctive pattern of muscle involvement and temporal profile of the disease, and the combination of inflammatory and myodegenerative changes and protein deposits in the muscle biopsy.
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a benign, temporary loss of anterograde memory with sparing of immediate recall and remote memories.
The Hachinski ischemic score (HIS) is known to be a simple clinical tool, currently used for differentiating major types of dementia, such as primary degenerative, vascular or multi-infarct, and mixed type.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic and fatal alpha-synuclein-linked oligodendrogliopathy manifesting with progressive autonomic failure, poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia, in any combination.
The clinical characteristics of mold infections of the CNS warrant assessment for possible biopsy and neurosurgical intervention. A definitive diagnosis almost invariably requires a biopsy, with prompt inspection of the specimen by means of wet-mount preparation with calcofluor white stain, culture, and histologic analysis (with Gomori methenamine silver stain and periodic acid–Schiff stain). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful if cultures of biopsy specimens are negative.