Transvaginal ultrasound is the main reference technique in the evaluation of adnexal masses. Based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification Amor et al. suggested adapting this system to gynecologic ultrasound for the evaluation of adnexal masses: Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) and based on recognition patterns and criteria recommended by the IOTA group.
The initial screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome should include specific questions about the patient’s personal and family history of breast and ovarian cancers, risk assessment, education, and counseling.
The freezing of oocytes has become a clinically viable option for women who wish to have a child in the future but are facing either an age-related or iatrogenic decrease in the quality and quantity of oocytes.
The incidence of cervical cancer, as well as mortality rates from the disease, has decreased over the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently published a clinical management guideline on cervical cytology screening.
New criteria for the use of ultrasonography to assess prenatal viability, introduced by the Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound, will help ensure obstetricians are not too hasty in determining that an embryo has ceased developing.
Three of four criteria must be met; establishes accurate diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in 90 percent of affected women.
Preeclampsia: For the diagnosis of preeclampsia, both hypertension and proteinuria must be present.
- Blood pressure: 140 mm Hg or higher systolic or 90 mm Hg or higher diastolic after 20 weeks of gestation in a woman with previously normal blood pressure. Systolic increased > 30 mm Hg or diastolic increased > 15 mm Hg in a patient with preexisting chronic hypertension.
- Proteinuria: 0.3 g or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection (usually corresponds with 1+ or greater on a urine dipstick test) Continue reading
- Lower abdominal tenderness
- Uterine/adnexal tenderness
- Cervical motion tenderness Continue reading
o Steroidogenic enzyme deficiencies
§ Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
§ Aromatase deficiency
o Androgen-secreting tumors
o Exogenous androgens
§ Anabolic steroids
§ Transsexual hormone replacement
§ Idiopathic hirsutism
Revised diagnostic criteria of PCOS
1999 criteria (both 1 and 2)
1. Chronic anovulation
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, and exclusion of other aetiologies