Tumor Markers in Clinical Practice

Tumor markers are playing an increasingly important role in cancer detection and management. These laboratory-based tests are potentially useful in screening for early malignancy, aiding cancer diagnosis, determining prognosis, surveillance following curative surgery for cancer, up front predicting drug response or resistance, and monitoring therapy in advanced disease.

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Modified Khorana Risk Score for Prediction of Venous Thromboembolic Events (VTE) in Patients with Cancer

Risk assessment tools can incorporate multiple variables to identify patients or subpopulations at risk for events. A recently developed risk score can identify cancer patients at high risk for VTE using a combination of easily available clinical and laboratory variables.

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Prostate-Cancer Screening Guidelines

The rationale for screening is that early detection and treatment of asymptomatic cancers could extend life, as compared with treatment at the time of clinical diagnosis. The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has nearly doubled the lifetime risk of receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

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Guidelines for the Use of Erythropoietic Proteins in Anaemic Patients with Cancer

Anaemia is a frequent finding in cancer patients and should be carefully assessed. Additional causes of anaemia such as iron deficiency, bleeding, nutritional defects or haemolysis should be corrected prior to erythropoietic protein therapy. The following recommendations are related to adult cancer patients with solid tumours or haematological malignancies:

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Definitions of Laboratory and Clinical Tumor Lysis Syndrome

The tumor lysis syndrome is the most common disease-related emergency encountered by physicians caring for children or adults with hematologic cancers. This syndrome occurs when tumor cells release their contents into the bloodstream, either spontaneously or in response to therapy, leading to the characteristic findings of hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. These electrolyte and metabolic disturbances can progress to clinical toxic effects, including renal insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death due to multiorgan failure.

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Indications and Contraindications Radioiodine Treatment of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC)

Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is defined as a carcinoma deriving from the follicular epithelium and retaining basic biological characteristics of healthy thyroid tissue, including expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), the key cellular feature for specific iodine uptake.

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Dose Equivalence Table for Opioid Analgesics

Equianalgesic tables aid the clinician in making these conversions by providing a rough estimate for starting doses of the new opioid that may produce approximately the same amount of analgesia. Morphine (10 mg IM) is the gold standard to which all other opioids are compared.

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Tumor, Node, Metastasis International Staging System for Lung Cancer

The Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer is an internationally accepted system used to characterize the extent of disease. The TNM system combines features of the tumor into disease stage groups that correlate with survival and are linked to recommendations for treatment.

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