Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a syndrome characterized by paroxysms of glottic obstruction due to true vocal cord adduction resulting in symptoms such as dyspnea and noisy breathing.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief spinning sensations, usually lasting less than 1 minute, which are generally induced by a change in head position with respect to gravity.
A diagnosis of AOM requires:
a history of acute onset of signs and symptoms,
the presence of middle-ear effusion (MEE), and
signs and symptoms of middle-ear inflammation.
Meniere´s disease is defined as recurrent, spontaneous episodic vertigo, hearing loss, aural fullness and tinnitus. Recurrent endolymphatic hypertension (hydrops) is believed to cause the episodes.
According to the guidelines from AAO-HNS Committee of Hearing and Equilibrium the three major symptoms are described as follows: