Diagnostic Criteria for the Classification of Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD)

Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a syndrome characterized by paroxysms of glottic obstruction due to true vocal cord adduction resulting in symptoms such as dyspnea and noisy breathing.

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Differential Diagnosis of Acute Vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief spinning sensations, usually lasting less than 1 minute, which are generally induced by a change in head position with respect to gravity.

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Definition of Acute Otitis Media (AOM)

A diagnosis of AOM requires:

  1. a history of acute onset of signs and symptoms,

  2. the presence of middle-ear effusion (MEE), and

  3. signs and symptoms of middle-ear inflammation.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Meniere’s Disease

Meniere´s disease is defined as recurrent, spontaneous episodic vertigo, hearing loss, aural fullness and tinnitus. Recurrent endolymphatic hypertension (hydrops) is believed to cause the episodes.

According to the guidelines from AAO-HNS Committee of Hearing and Equilibrium the three major symptoms are described as follows:

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