Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity (RP)

Retinopathy of prematurity is a vision-threatening disease associated with abnormal retinal vascular development that occurs only in premature infants.

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Phototherapy and Exchange Transfusion in Neonatal Hyperbilirubinaemia

In unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, the ultimate goal is the prevention of kernicterus and its potentially devastating effects.

Phototherapy represented an important advance inthe treatment of jaundice, enabling the effective and relatively rapid reduction of high bilirubin levels and facilitating the prevention of kernicterus.

Exchange transfusion is the only alternative to phototherapy for controlling hyperbilirubinaemia.

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Rochester Criteria for Identifying Febrile Infants at Low Risk for Serious Bacterial Infection

The Rochester criteria were developed to identify febrile infants aged 60 days or younger at low-risk of bacterial infection and do not include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing.
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Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure in Infants and Children

Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children

Clinical criteria

  • Decreased inspiratory breath sounds

  • Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles

  • Cyanosis breathing room air

  • Decreased level of normal activity/function

  • Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)

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Diagnostic Criteria for Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

One or more typical phenotypic features of CF:

  • Chronic sinopulmonary disease

  • Characteristic gastrointestinal and nutritional abnormalities

  • Salt loss syndromes

  • Obstructive azoospermia

or

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Clinical and Laboratory “Low Risk” Criteria for Children Younger Than 3 Months with Fever and No Focus of Infection

Clinical criteria

  • Born at term (gestational age >/= 37 weeks)with uncomplicated nursery stay
  • Previously healthy infants
  • Notoxic manifestations
  • No focal bacterial infection (except otitis media) Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

Necrotizing enterocolitis is among the most common and devastating diseases in neonates. The excessive inflammatory process initiated in the highly immunoreactive intestine in necrotizing enterocolitis extends the effects of the disease systemically, affecting distant organs such as the brain and placing affected infants at substantially increased risk for neurodevelopmental delays.

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Diagnostic Criteria for DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS)

Definitive diagnosis

Male or female patient with reduced numbers of CD3+ T cells (less than 500/mm3) and two of the three following characteristics:

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Causes of Bacteraemia and Meningitis in Young Children

Under 1 month old

  • Group B streptococcus
  • Escherichia coli (and other enteric Gram negative bacilli)
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Neisseria meningitides
  • Salmonella spp Continue reading