In 2000, IPF was defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, occurring primarily in older adults and limited to the lungs. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathological pattern of IPF. IPF is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Continue reading
The Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) is an algorithm that can be used to classify lung nodules in patients with significant smoking histories.
The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).
Primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive measures may reduce the incidence and severity of sensitizer-induced asthma.
Irritant-induced occupational asthma is a term used to describe occupational asthma that occurs from exposure to agents considered to be airway irritants, in the absence of sensitization.
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by variable narrowing of the airways and symptoms of intermittent dyspnea, wheezing, and nighttime or early-morning coughing.
The difficult-to-control asthma can be defined as that which is inadequately or poorly controlled despite an appropriate therapeutic strategy that is adjusted to clinical severity.
The BODE is a multidimensional index designed to assess clinical risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It combines four important variables into a single score: (B) body mass index; (O) airflow obstruction measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); (D) dyspnoea measured by the modified Medical Research Council (MRC) scale; and (E) exercise capacity measured by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Each component is graded and a score out of 10 is obtained, with higher scores indicating greater risk. The BODE index reflects the impact of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary factors on prognosis and survival in COPD.
The American Thoracic Society Pulmonary Function Standards Committee developed guidelines for the 6MWT in clinical settings. The 6MWT was chosen because it is easier to administer, better tolerated, and better reflects activities of daily living than other walk tests.
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstructive apneas and hypopneas during sleep, frequently followed by transient hemoglobin desaturation (hypoxemia) and unconscious (EEG) arousals.