Berlin Definition of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).

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Criteria for the Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS)

Irritant-induced occupational asthma is a term used to describe occupational asthma that occurs from exposure to agents considered to be airway irritants, in the absence of sensitization.

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Scoring the BODE Index

The BODE is a multidimensional index designed to assess clinical risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It combines four important variables into a single score: (B) body mass index; (O) airflow obstruction measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); (D) dyspnoea measured by the modified Medical Research Council (MRC) scale; and (E) exercise capacity measured by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Each component is graded and a score out of 10 is obtained, with higher scores indicating greater risk. The BODE index reflects the impact of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary factors on prognosis and survival in COPD.

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Indications for the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT)

The American Thoracic Society Pulmonary Function Standards Committee developed guidelines for the 6MWT in clinical settings. The 6MWT was chosen because it is easier to administer, better tolerated, and better reflects activities of daily living than other walk tests.

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Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in Adults and Children

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstructive apneas and hypopneas during sleep, frequently followed by transient hemoglobin desaturation (hypoxemia) and unconscious (EEG) arousals.

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Indications and Contraindications for Tube Thoracostomy

Indications for chest drain insertion

  • Pneumothorax
    • in any ventilated patient
    • tension pneumothorax after initial needle relief
    • persistent or recurrent pneumothorax after simple aspiration
    • large secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in patients over 50 years Continue reading