Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis, complications during pregnancy, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) in plasma. Continue reading
The Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (CAPS) is a rare life-threatening form of Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) in which widespread intravascular thrombosis results in multiorgan ischemia and failure. CAPS is the initial presentation of APS in nearly half of patients, while the remaining half has a history of APS. Continue reading
SLICC classification criteria improved the clinical relevance of the ACR criteria, incorporated recent findings on the immunology of SLE, and resolved several problems attributed to the ACR criteria.
Gout, which is characterized by deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) in synovial fluid and other tissues, is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis. Continue reading
A diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome is often made on the basis of a classic triad of symptoms: dryness of the mouth and eyes, fatigue, and pain. Systemic complications, which are present in 30 to 40% of patients, may provide the first clues to the disease.
This simple clinical case definition of fibromyalgia correctly classifies 88.1% of cases classified by the ACR classification criteria, and does not require a physical or tender point examination. Continue reading
The diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is based upon three factors: typical clinical manifestations, a positive response to colchicine therapy, and genetic testing, although currently available tests do not detect all mutations associated with FMF.
The diagnosis of the exact subtype of inflammatory myopathy is based on the combination of clinical history, tempo of disease progression, pattern of muscle involvement, muscle enzyme levels, electromyographic findings, muscle-biopsy analysis, and for some conditions, the presence of certain autoantibodies.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years.
Disease activity is assessed using a combination of the clinical history, physical examination, organ specific functional tests, and serologic studies.