A diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome is often made on the basis of a classic triad of symptoms: dryness of the mouth and eyes, fatigue, and pain. Systemic complications, which are present in 30 to 40% of patients, may provide the first clues to the disease.
This simple clinical case definition of fibromyalgia correctly classifies 88.1% of cases classified by the ACR classification criteria, and does not require a physical or tender point examination. Continue reading
The diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is based upon three factors: typical clinical manifestations, a positive response to colchicine therapy, and genetic testing, although currently available tests do not detect all mutations associated with FMF.
The diagnosis of the exact subtype of inflammatory myopathy is based on the combination of clinical history, tempo of disease progression, pattern of muscle involvement, muscle enzyme levels, electromyographic findings, muscle-biopsy analysis, and for some conditions, the presence of certain autoantibodies.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years.
Disease activity is assessed using a combination of the clinical history, physical examination, organ specific functional tests, and serologic studies.
Goodpasture’s syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, glomerulonephritis, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies.
The diagnosis of rheumatologic diseases is based on clinical information, blood and imaging tests, and in some cases on histology. Blood tests are useful in confirming clinically suspected diagnosis and monitoring the disease activity. The tests should be used as adjuncts to a comprehensive history and physical examination.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by joint swelling, joint tenderness, and destruction of synovial joints, leading to severe disability and premature mortality. Given the presence of autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (tested as anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP]), which can precede the clinical manifestation of RA by many years, RA is considered an autoimmune disease.
A joint working group of the ACR and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) was therefore formed to develop a new approach for classification of RA.