Semen analysis is the most important investigation of male subfertility. This is not a test for fertility but a guide for minimal standards of adequacy. What constitutes a ‘normal’ result has been a matter of debate, and recently the WHO normal ranges for semen parameters have changed.
Germ cell tumours of the testis are the commonest malignancy in men aged 20-40 years. Considerable therapeutic improvements in management—based on the cancer’s responsiveness to chemotherapy that contains platinum—mean that over 95% of these patients can now expect to be cured.
In accordance with Sarteschi, varicocele can be divided into five grades according to the characteristics of the reflux and its length, and to changes during Valsalva’s manoeuvre.
The Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) System