Opioid analgesics (termed opioids in this report) are a class of drugs commonly prescribed to treat moderate to severe pain. Opioids include drugs available by prescription such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, and fentanyl. Opioids also include illicit substances such as heroin and fentanyl. Although often prescribed to control pain, opioids may also produce feelings of euphoria and sedation which may lead to misuse of opioids resulting in opioid use disorder. Continue reading
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is often characterized as a skill acquisition deficit disorder. Continue reading
Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors designed to prevent weight gain. In addition, the self-evaluation of individuals with bulimia nervosa is excessively influenced by weight and body shape. The major change in criteria for diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is reducing the binge frequency threshold from twice per week in DSM-IV to once per week in DSM-5. The other differences include the DSM-IV differentiating between purging and nonpurging type (the DSM-5 does not) and the DSM-5 specifying criteria for partial remission, full remission, and severity, while the DSM-IV does not.
Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by starvation and malnutrition, a high prevalence of coexisting psychiatric conditions, marked treatment resistance or no response to treatment, frequent medical complications, and a substantial risk of death.
Behavioural addiction affects a vast number of individuals and occurs when people find themselves unable to control the frequency or amount of a previously harmless behavior such as love, sex, gambling, work, internet and chatroom usage, shopping or exercise. Behavioural addictions are considered impulse-control disorders and share many underlying similarities to substance addictions, including aspects of tolerance, withdrawal, repeated unsuccessful attempts to cut back or quit and impairment in everyday life functioning. Continue reading
The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. Continue reading
The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms “impaired control” paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment. Continue reading
Risk factors for suicide have been investigated at the population and individual levels; in addition, predisposing factors and precipitating events have been examined, mainly at the individual level. Each of these factors can be mediated through genetic, psychological, and personality characteristics, making most explanatory models complex and difficult to interpret. One approach to understanding suicide has been life-course analysis, which is based on the premise that risk factors come into play at different stages of life and that suicide is the cumulative result of risk factors over a lifetime. Continue reading
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue. Continue reading
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, by negative symptoms such as decreased motivation and diminished expressiveness, and by cognitive deficits involving impaired executive functions, memory, and speed of mental processing. Continue reading