The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) Version 2.1a or Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire

Section 1: Pain Intensity

  • I have no pain at the moment. [0 points]
  • The pain is very mild at the moment. [1 point]
  • The pain is moderate at the moment. [2 points]
  • The pain is fairly severe at the moment. [3 points]
  • The pain is very severe at the moment. [4 points]
  • The pain is the worst imaginable at the moment. [5 points]

Section 2: Personal Care

  • I can look after myself normally without causing extra pain. [0 points]
  • I can look after myself normally but it is very painful. [1 point]
  • It is painful to look after myself and I am slow and careful. [2 points]
  • I need some help but manage most of my personal care. [3 points]
  • I need help every day in most aspects of self care. [4 points]
  • I do not get dressed, wash with difficulty and stay in bed. [5 points]

Section 3: Lifting

  • I can lift heavy weights without extra pain. [0 points]
  • I can lift heavy weights but it gives extra pain. [1 point]
  • Pain prevents me from lifting heavy weights off the floor but I can manage if they are conveniently positioned, e.g. on a table. [2 points]
  • Pain prevents me from lifting heavy weights but I can manage light to medium weights if they are conveniently positioned. [3 points]
  • I can lift only very light weights. [4 points]
  • I cannot lift or carry anything at all. [5 points]
Section 4: Walking
  • Pain does not prevent me walking any distance. [0 points]
  • Pain prevents me walking more than one mile. [1 point]
  • Pain prevents me walking more than a quarter of a mile. [2 points]
  • Pain prevents me walking more than 100 yards. [3 points]
  • I can only walk using a stick or crutches. [4 points]
  • I am in bed most of the time and have to crawl to the toilet. [5 points]

Section 5: Sitting

  • I can sit in any chair as long as I like. [0 points]
  • I can sit in my favourite chair as long as I like. [1 point]
  • Pain prevents me from sitting for more than 1 hour. [2 points]
  • Pain prevents me from sitting for more than half an hour. [3 points]
  • Pain prevents me from sitting for more than 10 minutes. [4 points]
  • Pain prevents me from sitting at all. [5 points]

Section 6: Standing

  • I can stand as long as I want without extra pain. [0 points]
  • I can stand as long as I want but it gives me extra pain. [1 point]
  • Pain prevents me from standing for more than 1 hour. [2 points]
  • Pain prevents me from standing for more than half an hour. [3 points]
  • Pain prevents me from standing for more than 10 minutes. [4 points]
  • Pain prevents me from standing at all. [5 points]

Section 7: Sleeping

  • My sleep is never disturbed by pain. [0 points]
  • My sleep is occasionally disturbed by pain. [1 point]
  • Because of pain I have less than 6 hours sleep. [2 points]
  • Because of pain I have less than 4 hours sleep. [3 points]
  • Because of pain I have less than 2 hours sleep. [4 points]
  • Pain prevents me from sleeping at all.  [5 points]

Section 8: Sex Life (if applicable)

  • My sex life is normal and causes no extra pain. [0 points]
  • My sex life is normal but causes some extra pain. [1 point]
  • My sex life is nearly normal but is very painful. [2 points]
  • My sex life is severely restricted by pain. [3 points]
  • My sex life is nearly absent because of pain. [4 points]
  • Pain prevents any sex life at all. [5 points]
Section 9: Social Life
  • My social life is normal and causes me no extra pain. [0 points]
  • My social life is normal but increases the degree of pain. [1 point]
  • Pain has no significant effect on my social life apart from limiting my more energetic interests, e.g. sport, etc. [2 points]
  • Pain has restricted my social life and I do not go out as often. [3 points]
  • Pain has restricted social life to my home. [4 points]
  • I have no social life because of pain. [5 points]
Section 10: Traveling
  • I can travel anywhere without pain. [0 points]
  • I can travel anywhere but it gives extra pain. [1 point]
  • Pain is bad but I manage journeys over two hours. [2 points]
  • Pain restricts me to journeys of less than one hour. [3 points]
  • Pain restricts me to short necessary journeys under 30 minutes. [4 points]
  • Pain prevents me from travelling except to receive treatment. [5 points]

Interpretation:

Now, simply add up your points for each section and plug it in to the following formula in order to calculate your level of disability: point total / 50 X 100 = % disability (aka: ‘point total’ divided by ’50’ multiply by ‘ 100 = percent disability)

Example: on my last ODI I scored a 16.  So, 16/50 x 100 = 32% disability:

ODI Scoring:

  • 0% to 20% (minimal disability): Patients can cope with most activities of daily living. No treatment may be indicated except for suggestions on lifting, posture, physical fitness and diet. Patients with sedentary occupations (ex. secretaries) may experience more problems than others.

  • 21%-40% (moderate disability): Patients may experience more pain and problems with sitting, lifting and standing. Travel and social life are more difficult. Patients may be off work. Personal care, sleeping and sexual activity may not be grossly affected. Conservative treatment may be sufficient.

  • 41%-60% (severe disability): Pain is a primary problem for these patients, but they may also be experiencing significant problems in travel, personal care, social life, sexual activity and sleep. A detailed evaluation is appropriate.

  • 61%-80% (crippled): Back pain has an impact on all aspects of daily living and work. Active treatment is required.

  • 81%-100%: These patients may be bed bound or exaggerating their symptoms. Careful evaluation is recommended.

 

 

References:

  1. Roland M, Fairbank J. The Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Oswestry Disability
    Questionnaire. Spine. 2000 Dec 15;25(24):3115-24. [Medline]
  2. Fairbank JC, Pynsent PB, The Oswestry Disability Index. Spine 2000; 25(22):2940-2952  [Medline]
  3. Fairbank JCT, Couper J, Davies JB. The Oswestry low Back Pain Questionnaire. Physiotherapy 1980; 66: 271-273. [Medline]

 

Created: December 09, 2006

print