The American Academy of Sleep Medicine defines insomnia as the subjective perception of difficulty with sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate opportunity for sleep, and that results in some form of daytime impairment.
In 2005, the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS) was established to provide a means of classifying findings of CT colonography (CTC) and of applying the advantages of structured reporting to the setting of colorectal cancer screening.
This scale and criteria are used by physicians and researchers to assess how a patient’s disease is progressing, assess how the disease affects the daily living abilities of the patient, and determine appropriate treatment and prognosis.
Transvaginal ultrasound is the main reference technique in the evaluation of adnexal masses. Based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) classification Amor et al. suggested adapting this system to gynecologic ultrasound for the evaluation of adnexal masses: Gynecologic Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) and based on recognition patterns and criteria recommended by the IOTA group.
Thyroid nodules are a frequent finding on neck sonography. Most nodules are benign; therefore, many nodules are biopsied to identify the small number that are malignant or require surgery for a definitive diagnosis. In 2012, the ACR convened committees to (1) provide recommendations for reporting incidental thyroid nodules, (2) develop a set of standard terms (lexicon) for ultrasound reporting, and (3) propose a TI-RADS on the basis of the lexicon.
PI-RADS is designed to improve focal lesion detection, localization, characterization, and risk stratification in patients with suspected cancer and consists of technical recommendation for MRI acquisition and a scoring system for image interpretation. PI-RADS uses a scale of 1–5 to report the overall probability of clinically significant prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). The use of PI-RADS is limited to treatment naive patients and it should not be used for staging, assessment of treatment outcome, recurrence, or progression during surveillance.
The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) standardizes the interpretation, reporting, and data collection for imaging examinations in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It assigns category codes reflecting relative probability of HCC to imaging-detected liver observations based on major and ancillary imaging features. LI-RADS also includes imaging features suggesting malignancy other than HCC.
Delirium is also known as acute confusional state, altered mental status, and toxic metabolic encephalopathy, among more than 30 descriptive terms. Delirium can be thought of as acute brain failure and is the final common pathway of multiple mechanisms, similar to acute heart failure. The official definition of delirium in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), requires a disturbance in attention and awareness that develops acutely and tends to fluctuate. The pathophysiological mechanisms of delirium remain poorly understood; leading models include neurotransmitter imbalance and neuroinflammation.