STOPP/START Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Older People

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Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older people currently represent a serious and growing public health problem. Polypharmacy and inappropriate prescribing (IP) are wellknown risk factors for ADRs, which commonly cause adverse clinical outcomes in older people IP encompasses potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs). STOPP/START criteria for potential IP in older people recognise the dual nature of IP by including a list of PIMs (STOPP criteria) and PPOs (START criteria). Continue reading

Definition of Transgender Persons

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Gender identity is the term used to describe a person’s sense of being male, female, neither, or some combination of both. The terms “transgender,” “transsexual,” “trans,” “gender nonbinary,” “gender incongruent,” and “genderqueer” are adjectives for persons with gender identities that are not aligned with the sex recorded at birth. “Cisgender” is the term for persons who are not transgender – that is, persons whose sex recorded at birth aligns with their gender identity. Continue reading

Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator

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BMI is body weight divided by a power of height, usually (height)2, which is said to be independent of stature. Calculations based on values for ideal body weight suggest that BMIs for normal men and women should be in the range of 18.5 to 25 kg/m2. Indeed, this range roughly corresponds to the 10th to 75th percentile values recorded from adult individuals. For infants and children, average BMI values change with age, from 13 kg/m2 at birth, to a peak of 18 at about 1 year, a nadir of 15 at about age 6 years, and then a rise to adult values during adolescence. Continue reading

WHO Diagnostic Criteria for Prefibrotic or Early-Stage Myelofibrosis (pre-PMF)

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Prefibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) is a distinct entity among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm diagnosed according to the revised WHO classification. The clinical picture is heterogeneous, ranging from isolated thrombocytosis, mimicking essential thrombocythemia (ET), to symptoms of high-risk PMF. Continue reading

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech, by negative symptoms such as decreased motivation and diminished expressiveness, and by cognitive deficits involving impaired executive functions, memory, and speed of mental processing. Continue reading