WHO Immunological Classification for Established HIV Infection

The revised clinical staging and immunological classification of HIV are designed to assist in clinical management of HIV, especially where there is limited laboratory capacity. Continue reading

Biochemical Markers in Testicular Cancer

Patients with testicular cancer most frequently present with a painless testicular mass. The initial work-up includes a history and physical exam, cross-sectional imaging of the retroperitoneum, chest x-ray, and serum levels of AFP, hCG, and LDH. Continue reading

Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children

This guideline provides global, evidence-informed recommendations on a number of specific issues related to the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children, Continue reading

Approved Indications for Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)

First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. Continue reading

Universal Definitions of Myocardial Injury and Myocardial Infarction

With the introduction of more sensitive cardiac biomarkers, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) collaborated to redefine MI using a biochemical and clinical approach, and reported that myocardial injury detected by abnormal biomarkers in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia should be labelled as MI. Continue reading

Chronic Adaptations to Physical Training (PT)

Long-term responses that develop over a period of time (usually a minimum of 6 weeks) when training is repeated regularly are referred to as chronic adaptations to training. The combined effect of all chronic adaptations is known as the training effect.
Chronic adaptations to training may occur in the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. The result of these physiological adaptations is an improvement in performance. Continue reading

Helicobacter pylori Infection in Peptic Ulcer Disease

Endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease. Apart from  exclusion of malignant disease, detection of H pylori infection with histology or rapid urease tests is essential to the subsequent treatment plan.  Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Aplastic Anemia (AA)

Aplastic anaemia is a rare and heterogeneous disorder. It is defined as pancytopenia with a hypocellular bone marrow in the absence of an abnormal infiltrate or marrow fibrosis. Continue reading

TG18/TG13 Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Cholangitis

The diagnostic and severity grading criteria on the 2018 Tokyo Guidelines (TG18) are used worldwide as the primary standard for management of acute cholangitis (AC). Continue reading

Recommendations for Management of Hypertension (JNC 8)

Hypertension is the most common condition seen in primary care and leads to myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. Patients want to be assured that blood pressure (BP) treatment will reduce their disease burden, while clinicians want guidance on hypertension management using the best scientific evidence. Continue reading