Acute Hypertensive Definitions in the Pregnant Patient

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Hypertensive disorders are common during pregnancy and can be classified into four pregnancy-associated categories: (1) chronic hypertension, (2) gestational hypertension, (3) preeclampsia, and (4) chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. In addition, non-pregnancy associated hypertensive emergencies can occur in the pregnant patient. Continue reading

Allred Score for Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Evaluation

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Breast cancer (BC) hormonal receptors status is assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a specific, sensitive, and accessible method that guide breast cancer treatment. Continue reading

Revised Diagnostic Criteria for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

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Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a neurological sensorimotor disease often profoundly disturbing sleep and quality of life has variable expression influenced by genetic, environmental and medical factors. The symptoms vary considerably in frequency from less than once a month or year to daily and severity from mildly annoying to disabling. Symptoms may also remit for various periods of time. Continue reading

Revised Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals’ daily activities. Continue reading

Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC)

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The pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) was designed to identify patients in whom the risk of testing outweighs the benefits (the “test threshold”, which for pulmonary embolism (PE) was calculated as a 2% prevalence). Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for the Brugada Syndrome (BrS)

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Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare inherited arrhythmia syndrome leading to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, despite a structurally normal heart. Diagnosis is based on a specific electrocardiogram pattern, observed either spontaneously or during a sodium channel blocker test. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria of Ulcerative Pyoderma Gangrenosum (PG)

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Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a reactive non-infectious inflammatory dermatosis falling under the spectrum of the neutrophilic dermatoses, which includes Sweet’s syndrome and Behcet’s syndrome. Continue reading

Features of Congenital Zika Syndrome

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The majority (50 to 80%) of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic ZIKV infection has an incubation period of 3 to 14 days and is a mild illness, with a duration of up to 1 week, that manifests as a rash, low-grade fever, arthralgia and myalgia, and conjunctivitis. Complications are infrequent, but when they occur, they are severe and may be fatal. Continue reading

Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease (VKHD)

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Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKHD) is a bilateral, chronic granulomatous panuveitis associated with central nervous system, auditory, and integumentary manifestations. Continue reading

Lennard-Jones Diagnostic Criteria of Crohn’s Disease (CD)

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Once the clinical suspicion is established, the diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical, endoscopic, histological and/or radiological criteria. Continue reading