Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Grading of Acute Cholecystitis (TG18)

The diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis have high sensitivity (91.2%) and specificity (96.9%) and good diagnostic yield; therefore, their use as the diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis is recommended.

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Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children

This guideline provides global, evidence-informed recommendations on a number of specific issues related to the management of severe acute malnutrition in infants and children, Continue reading

TG18/TG13 Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Cholangitis

The diagnostic and severity grading criteria on the 2018 Tokyo Guidelines (TG18) are used worldwide as the primary standard for management of acute cholangitis (AC). Continue reading

The 2015 Jones Criteria for Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF)

The changes improve the diagnosis of ARF among moderate/high-risk populations and re-establish the Jones criteria as the international gold standard for ARF diagnosis.
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Berlin Definition of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).

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Diagnosis and Determination of Severity of Acute Cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis is a very common complication of cholelithiasis, and as such is frequently encountered in surgical practice. TG07 diagnostic criteria are recognized as those to be recommended in current care for acute cholecystitis.

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Alvarado Score for Acute Appendicitis

The use of the Alvarado scoring system, which includes clinical examination findings and laboratory values, is helpful in ruling out appendicitis. Scores range from 1 to 10, with higher scores indicating a greater risk of appendicitis. When the score is less than 4, appendicitis is uncommon, and imaging and other interventions can be avoided.

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Classifications of Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis.

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Indications and Contraindications for ERCP in Patients with Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

Recent guidelines published by the American College of Gastroenterology suggest that urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (within 24 hours after admission) is indicated in patients with biliary pancreatitis who have concurrent acute cholangitis, but it is not needed in most patients who do not have evidence of ongoing biliary obstruction.

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Clinical Criteria for the Diagnosis of Acute Bacterial Sinusitis

Acute bacterial sinusitis in children is diagnosed on the basis of the history, with the use of the criteria. Imaging studies (plain-film radiography, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and ultrasonography) show signs of sinus inflammation but are not recommended in patients with uncomplicated infection, given the low specificity of these studies.

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