Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection

Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. Continue reading

Case Definition for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)

Early recognition is critical for infection control. Healthcare providers should be alert for and evaluate any patients suspected of having EVD.

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Case Definition for Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection (Swine Flu)

After identification of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Mexico, a case definition was developed. The initial definition of suspected novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection included any hospitalized patient with severe acute respiratory illness. On May 1, 2009, this definition was expanded to include any person with acute respiratory illness defined as fever and either sore throat or cough. On May 11, 2009, the definition of suspected case was changed again to include any person with:

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1996 CDC Case Definition for Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

Syphilis is a complex sexually transmitted disease that has a highly variable clinical course. Classification by a clinician with expertise in syphilis may take precedence over the following case definitions developed for surveillance purposes.

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Case Definition of Streptococcal Toxic-Shock Syndrome (Streptococcal TSS) and Necrotizing Fasciitis*

I. Streptococcal TSS

A. Isolation of group A Streptococcus

1. From a sterile site

2. From a nonsterile body site

B. Clinical signs of severity

1. Hypotension

2. Clinical and laboratory abnormalities (requires two or more of the following):

a) Renal impairment

b) Coagulopathy

c) Liver abnormalities

d) Acute respiratory distress syndrome

e) Extensive tissue necrosis, i.e., necrotizing fasciitis

f) Erythematous rash

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Case Definition of Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

An illness with the following clinical manifestations:

  1. Fever: temperature > 38.9º C (102º F)

  2. Rash: diffuse macular erythroderma

  3. Desquamation: 1-2 weeks after onset of illness, particularly palms and soles

  4. Hypotension: systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg for adults or less than fifth percentile by age for children <16 years of age; orthostatic drop in diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 15 mm Hg from lying to sitting, orthostatic syncope, or orthostatic dizziness

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