Diagnostic Criteria for Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome (PTCS)

The pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) may be primary (idiopathic intracranial hypertension) or arise from an identifiable secondary cause. Characterization of typical neuroimaging abnormalities, clarification of normal opening pressure in children, and features distinguishing the syndrome of intracranial hypertension without papilledema from intracranial hypertension with papilledema have furthered our understanding of this disorder.
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Spetzler–Martin Grading Scale for Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain

Arteriovenous malformations of the brain are congenital anomalies of the blood vessels that are derived from maldevelopment of the capillary network, allowing direct connections between cerebral arteries and veins. The most common presenting symptoms are cerebral hemorrhage and seizures. Focal neurologic deficits and headaches may develop independent of cerebral bleeding. As a result of the widespread use of brain imaging, arteriovenous malformations are increasingly being discovered incidentally.

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Advantages of Surgery and Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an appropriate form of therapy for patients who have one to four brain metastases, no larger than 4 cm in diameter, from metastatic cancer. It appears to be effective for all types of primary tumors, even those that have been considered to be resistant to conventional radiation therapy.

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Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children

Clinical Criteria for Brain Death in Adults and Children

  • Coma
  • Absence of motor responses
  • Absence of pupillary responses to light and pupils at midposition with respect to dilatation (4–6 mm)
  • Absence of corneal reflexes
  • Absence of caloric responses
  • Absence of gag reflex
  • Absence of coughing in response to tracheal suctioning
  • Absence of sucking and rooting reflexes
  • Absence of respiratory drive at a PaCO2 that is 60 mm Hg or 20 mm Hg above normal base-line values*
  • Interval between two evaluations, according to patient’s age Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria of Hemorrhage in MRI of the Brain

The imaging characteristics of blood on MRI can be variable:

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