Nasal polyps are benign inflammatory masses, arising from the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are considered to be a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis, and clinical diagnosis is made on the basis of the presence of sinonasal symptoms for more than 3 months and the visualization of polyps in the nasal cavity. Continue reading
Long-term responses that develop over a period of time (usually a minimum of 6 weeks) when training is repeated regularly are referred to as chronic adaptations to training. The combined effect of all chronic adaptations is known as the training effect.
Chronic adaptations to training may occur in the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. The result of these physiological adaptations is an improvement in performance. Continue reading
Grading and staging refers to a semiquantitative assessment of the necroinflammatory activity (grade) and degree of fibrosis (stage) in relation to chronic hepatitis.
Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis.
Chronic HBV infection is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver caused by persistent infection with HBV, and can be categorized as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative. Inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers have HBV infection of the liver without significant, ongoing necroinflammatory disease. HBV infection is resolved when there is no further virologic, biochemical, or histologic evidence of active viral infection or disease.
Classic chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized by the occurrence of symmetrical weakness in both proximal and distal muscles that progressively increases for more than two months (setting this condition apart from the Guillain–Barré syndrome, which is self-limited). The condition is associated with impaired sensation, absent or diminished tendon reflexes, an elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein level, demyelinating nerve-conduction studies, and signs of demyelination in nerve-biopsy specimens. The course can be relapsing or chronic and progressive, the former being much more common in young adults.
These criteria are applied by testing the median, ulnar (stimulated below the elbow), peroneal (stimulated below the fibular head), and tibial nerves on one side of the body. During testing, limb temperature should be no less than 33°C at the palm and no less than 30°C at the external malleolus.
Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children
- Decreased inspiratory breath sounds
- Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles
- Cyanosis breathing room air
- Decreased level of normal activity/function
- Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)
NKF Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease
Kidney damage for three or more months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased GFR, manifested by pathologic abnormalities or markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine or abnormalities in imaging tests
GFR < 60 mL per minute per 1.73 m2 for three months or more, with or without kidney damage
Centers for Disease Control Diagnostic Criteria
Clinically evaluated, unexplained, persistent, or relapsing fatigue that is:
- Of new or definite onset
- Not a result of ongoing exertion
- Not alleviated by rest
- Results in a substantial reduction in previous levels of occupational, social, or personal activity Continue reading