Definition and Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

NKF Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Kidney damage for three or more months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased GFR, manifested by pathologic abnormalities or markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine or abnormalities in imaging tests

  • GFR < 60 mL per minute per 1.73 m2 for three months or more, with or without kidney damage

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Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

Centers for Disease Control Diagnostic Criteria

Clinically evaluated, unexplained, persistent, or relapsing fatigue that is:

  • Of new or definite onset
  • Not a result of ongoing exertion
  • Not alleviated by rest
  • Results in a substantial reduction in previous levels of occupational, social, or personal activity Continue reading

GOLD Staging System for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD) Severity

The European Respiratory Society (ERS) diagnostic criteria for COPD include the following symptoms: coughing, sputum production and/or dyspnoea, as well as a history of exposure to risk factors for COPD. The diagnosis is confirmed by a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 in spirometry, as sign of the airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.

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Criteria for Chronic Stable Refractory Angina

The criteria for chronic stable refractory angina were defined by Mannheimer and colleagues in 2002 as “a chronic condition characterized by the presence of angina caused by coronary insufficiency in the presence of coronary artery disease which cannot be controlled by a combination of medical therapy, angioplasty and coronary bypass surgery. The presence of reversible myocardial ischemia should be clinically established to be the cause of the symptoms. Chronic is defined as a duration of more than 3 months. Continue reading

Serum Levels That Differentiate Anemia of Chronic Disease from Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Iron deficiency anemia develops when body stores of iron drop too low to support normal red blood cell (RBC) production. Inadequate dietary iron, impaired iron absorption, bleeding, or loss of body iron in the urine may be the cause.

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