The relationship between BP and cardiovascular (CV) and renal events is continuous, making the distinction between normotension and hypertension, based on cut-off BP values, somewhat arbitrary. However, in practice, cut-off BP values are used for pragmatic reasons to simplify the diagnosis and decisions about treatment. Continue reading
SLICC classification criteria improved the clinical relevance of the ACR criteria, incorporated recent findings on the immunology of SLE, and resolved several problems attributed to the ACR criteria.
Gout, which is characterized by deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) in synovial fluid and other tissues, is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis. Continue reading
A diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome is often made on the basis of a classic triad of symptoms: dryness of the mouth and eyes, fatigue, and pain. Systemic complications, which are present in 30 to 40% of patients, may provide the first clues to the disease.
The Banff classification represented the first attempt to formulate an international, consensus based and structured classification system for the diagnosis and categorization of renal allograft biopsy pathology with a particular focus on the development of the morphological criteria for the diagnosis and classification of rejection. Continue reading
Hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in the glycemic management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recommendations from the International Hypoglycaemia Study Group regarding the classification of hypoglycemia considers a blood glucose <54 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L) detected by self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (for at least 20 min), or laboratory measurement of plasma glucose as sufficiently low to indicate serious, clinically significant hypoglycemia that should be included in reports of clinical trials of glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of diabetes. However, a glucose alert value of </=70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) can be important for therapeutic dose adjustment of glucose-lowering drugs in clinical care and is often related to symptomatic hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia is defined as severe cognitive impairment requiring assistance from another person for recovery.
PVD can be categorized using the Fontaine or Rutherford classification system. Each system grades PVD from no symptoms to major tissue loss and can be used at diagnosis and to evaluate the progression or improvement of symptoms.
The Ross Heart Failure Classification was developed to provide a global assessment of heart failure severity in infants, and has subsequently been modified to apply to all pediatric ages. The modified Ross Classification incorporates feeding difficulties, growth problems, and symptoms of exercise intolerance into a numeric score comparable with the NYHA classification for adults.
The World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms updated in 2008 represents a worldwide consensus on the diagnosis of these tumors and is based on the recognition of distinct diseases, using a multidisciplinary approach.
Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis.