Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by joint swelling, joint tenderness, and destruction of synovial joints, leading to severe disability and premature mortality. Given the presence of autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (tested as anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP]), which can precede the clinical manifestation of RA by many years, RA is considered an autoimmune disease.
A joint working group of the ACR and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) was therefore formed to develop a new approach for classification of RA. Continue reading →
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines malnutrition as the cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions.
Malnutrition generally implies undernutrition and refers to all deviations from adequate and optimal nutritional status in infants, children and in adults. In children, undernutrition manifests as underweight and stunting (short stature), while severely undernourished children present with the symptoms and signs that characterize conditions known as kwashiorkor, marasmus or marasmic-kwashiorkor.
The International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ICROP) was published in 2 parts, the first in 1984 and later expanded in 1987. It was a consensus statement of an international group of retinopathy of prematurity experts. Continue reading →
Dermatomyositis is an idiopathic disorder that includes an inflammatory myopathy and characteristic skin manifestations; polymyositis includes the inflammatory myopathy without the cutaneous findings. Continue reading →
In 2004, the ADQI group and representatives from three nephrology societies established the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Its intentions are to facilitate international, interdisciplinary and intersocietal collaborations and to ensure progress in the field of AKI, including the development of uniform standards for the definition and classification of AKI. As part of this process, the RIFLE nomenclature and classification was modified to a staging/classification system differentiating between AKI stage I, II and III. In addition, a 48-hour time window for the diagnosis of AKI was introduced to ensure that the process was acute. Continue reading →
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, is a rare form of vasculitis. In this disorder, small-sized blood vessels in the nose, sinuses, ears, lungs and kidneys become inflamed and damaged. Continue reading →
According to the ESSG criteria, for a patient to be classified as having SpA, he or she has to satisfy one of two entry criteria: Inflammatory spinal pain OR synovitis that is either asymmetric or predominantly in the lower limbs.
Inflammatory back pain: Back pain is common among the general population. However, “inflammatory” back pain is much less common. Back pain is considered inflammatory if four of the following five criteria are found:
Onset of back discomfort before the age of 40 years
Persistence for at least three months
Associated with morning stiffness
Improvement with exercise
Asymmetrical synovitis: Asymmetrical synovitis, predominantly of the lower limbs is manifested by soft tissue swelling, warmth over a joint, joint effusion, and reductions in both active and passive range of motion. As with inflammatory spinal pain, the symptoms are worse after a period of rest.