The World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms updated in 2008 represents a worldwide consensus on the diagnosis of these tumors and is based on the recognition of distinct diseases, using a multidisciplinary approach. Continue reading →
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a syndrome characterized by paroxysms of glottic obstruction due to true vocal cord adduction resulting in symptoms such as dyspnea and noisy breathing. Continue reading →
The recommended classification is unchanged from the 2003 and 2007 ESH/ESC guidelines. Hypertension is defined as values >/=140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or >/=90 mmHg diastolic blood pressure (DBP), based on the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that in patients with these blood pressure (BP) values treatment-induced BP reductions are beneficial. Continue reading →
Cryoglobulinemia is usually classified into three subgroups according to Ig composition: type I cryoglobulinemia is composed of only one isotype or subclass of immunoglobulin. Both type II and type III mixed cryoglobulins are immune complexes composed of polyclonal IgGs, the autoantigens, and mono- or polyclonal IgMs, respectively; the IgMs are the corresponding autoantibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Continue reading →
Celiac disease is a systemic immune-mediated disorder triggered by dietary gluten in genetically susceptible persons. Gluten is a protein complex found in wheat, rye, and barley. Celiac disease is characterized by a broad range of clinical presentations, a specific serum autoantibody response, and variable damage to the small intestinal mucosa. Continue reading →
Chagas’ disease is caused by a protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, that is transmitted to humans through the feces of infected bloodsucking insects in endemic areas of Latin America, or occasionally by nonvectorial mechanisms, such as blood transfusion. Cardiac involvement, which typically appears decades after the initial infection, may result in cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular aneurysm, congestive heart failure, thromboembolism, and sudden cardiac death. Continue reading →
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by joint swelling, joint tenderness, and destruction of synovial joints, leading to severe disability and premature mortality. Given the presence of autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti–citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) (tested as anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP]), which can precede the clinical manifestation of RA by many years, RA is considered an autoimmune disease.
A joint working group of the ACR and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) was therefore formed to develop a new approach for classification of RA. Continue reading →