Diagnostic Criteria for Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the frontal and/or temporal lobes, leading to dementia with prominent behavioural and/or language disturbances. Symptom onset is most often between 45 and 65 years. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Nasal polyps are benign inflammatory masses, arising from the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are considered to be a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis, and clinical diagnosis is made on the basis of the presence of sinonasal symptoms for more than 3 months and the visualization of polyps in the nasal cavity. Continue reading

Criteria to Initiate Evaluation for Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)

Tools for the diagnosis of GHD include auxology, radiographic assessment of bone age, measurement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), provocative growth hormone (GH) testing, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, in certain cases, genetic testing. Growth velocity and the degree of short stature are primary considerations in the decision to pursue evaluation for GHD. Continue reading

Diagnosis and Severity Criteria for Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome/Veno-Occlusive Disease in Children

Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that belongs to a group of diseases increasingly identified as transplant-related, systemic endothelial diseases. In most cases, SOS/VOD resolves within weeks; however, severe SOS/VOD results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure with a mortality rate >80%. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Grading of Acute Cholecystitis (TG18)

The diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis have high sensitivity (91.2%) and specificity (96.9%) and good diagnostic yield; therefore, their use as the diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis is recommended.

Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

In 2000, IPF was defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, occurring primarily in older adults and limited to the lungs. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathological pattern of IPF. IPF is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Continue reading

Criteria for Essential Tremor

Essential tremor is considered to be a tremor syndrome characterized by isolated bilateral upper-limb action tremor with a duration of at least 3 years, with or without tremor in other locations, such as head, larynx (voice tremor), or lower limbs.
Essential tremor frequently manifests with additional mild neurologic signs of diagnostic uncertainty, such as mild ataxia, questionably abnormal posturing of the limbs, or impaired memory. This presentation is classified as “essential tremor plus. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome (PTCS)

The pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) may be primary (idiopathic intracranial hypertension) or arise from an identifiable secondary cause. Characterization of typical neuroimaging abnormalities, clarification of normal opening pressure in children, and features distinguishing the syndrome of intracranial hypertension without papilledema from intracranial hypertension with papilledema have furthered our understanding of this disorder.
Continue reading