IWOS Criteria for the Diagnosis of Ocular Sarcoidosis (OS)

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder with unknown aetiology, affecting many organs including the eye and characterised by non-caseating granulomas. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly affecting the frontal and/or temporal lobes, leading to dementia with prominent behavioural and/or language disturbances. Symptom onset is most often between 45 and 65 years. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Nasal polyps are benign inflammatory masses, arising from the mucosa of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are considered to be a subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis, and clinical diagnosis is made on the basis of the presence of sinonasal symptoms for more than 3 months and the visualization of polyps in the nasal cavity. Continue reading

Diagnosis of Inhalation Injury

Inhalation injury can feature supraglottic thermal injury, chemical irritation of the respiratory tract, systemic toxicity due to agents such as carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide, or a combination of these insults. The resultant inflammatory response may cause higher fluid resuscitation volumes, progressive pulmonary dysfunction, prolonged ventilator days, increased risk of pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Continue reading

Diagnosis and Severity Criteria for Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome/Veno-Occlusive Disease in Children

Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) that belongs to a group of diseases increasingly identified as transplant-related, systemic endothelial diseases. In most cases, SOS/VOD resolves within weeks; however, severe SOS/VOD results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure with a mortality rate >80%. Continue reading

GLIM Criteria for the Diagnosis of Malnutrition

This Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) initiative targets the priority to adopt global consensus criteria so that malnutrition prevalence, interventions, and outcomes may be compared throughout the world. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Grading of Acute Cholecystitis (TG18)

The diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis have high sensitivity (91.2%) and specificity (96.9%) and good diagnostic yield; therefore, their use as the diagnostic criteria for acute cholecystitis is recommended.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

In 2000, IPF was defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, occurring primarily in older adults and limited to the lungs. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathological pattern of IPF. IPF is characterized by progressive worsening of dyspnea and lung function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Continue reading

Diagnosis of Primary Hypoparathyroidism

Primary hypoparathyroidism is a condition characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia resulting from the primary absence or deficiency of parathyroid hormone (PTH) or from the secretion of biologically inactive PTH. Continue reading

Diagnostic Criteria for Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome (PTCS)

The pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) may be primary (idiopathic intracranial hypertension) or arise from an identifiable secondary cause. Characterization of typical neuroimaging abnormalities, clarification of normal opening pressure in children, and features distinguishing the syndrome of intracranial hypertension without papilledema from intracranial hypertension with papilledema have furthered our understanding of this disorder.
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