Helicobacter pylori Infection in Peptic Ulcer Disease

Endoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease. Apart from  exclusion of malignant disease, detection of H pylori infection with histology or rapid urease tests is essential to the subsequent treatment plan.  Continue reading

Revised Criteria for Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) charged a workgroup with the task of developing criteria for the symptomatic predementia phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), referred to in this article as mild cognitive impairment due to AD.  Continue reading

MDS Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson’s Disease (PD)

The prerequisite to apply the Movement Disorder Society (MDS-PD) criteria is the diagnosis of parkinsonism, which is based on three cardinal motor manifestations. Parkinsonism is defined as bradykinesia, in combination with either rest tremor, rigidity, or both. These features must be clearly demonstrable and not attributable to confounding factors. Continue reading

Classification of Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

PVD can be categorized using the Fontaine or Rutherford classification system. Each system grades PVD from no symptoms to major tissue loss and can be used at diagnosis and to evaluate the progression or improvement of symptoms.

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Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire

The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire has been shown to be 91 percent specific and 99 percent sensitive for diagnosing intermittent claudication in symptomatic patients.

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Histologic Scoring Systems for Chronic Liver Disease

Grading and staging refers to a semiquantitative assessment of the necroinflammatory activity (grade) and degree of fibrosis (stage) in relation to chronic hepatitis.

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Classifications of Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis.

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Case Definition for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)

Early recognition is critical for infection control. Healthcare providers should be alert for and evaluate any patients suspected of having EVD.

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Typical Laboratory Abnormalities in Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD)

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a spectrum of injury, ranging from simple steatosis to frank cirrhosis.

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Modified Marsh Classification of Histologic Findings in Celiac Disease (Oberhuber)

Celiac disease is a systemic immune-mediated disorder triggered by dietary gluten in genetically susceptible persons. Gluten is a protein complex found in wheat, rye, and barley. Celiac disease is characterized by a broad range of clinical presentations, a specific serum autoantibody response, and variable damage to the smallintestinal mucosa.

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