Indications for Therapy and for Neurosurgery in Patients with Prolactinomas

In contrast to macroadenomas, for which therapy is routinely indicated, microadenomas do not always require treatment. For patients with microadenomas who do not have these indications, symptoms and prolactin levels can be monitored, and MRI can be used to follow the size of the tumor.

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Clinical Manifestations of Thyroiditis Subtypes

Thyroiditis refers to a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the thyroid gland. With the help of historical information, a physical examination and diagnostic tests, physicians can classify the type of thyroiditis and initiate appropriate treatment.

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Criteria for Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)

Criteria for Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)

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Diagnostic Criteria of Paraneoplastic Neurological Disorder (PND) of the CNS

Definite PND

  1. Classic syndrome with cancer diagnosed within 5 years of neurological symptom development
  2. Nonclassic syndrome that resolves or significantly improves after cancer treatment
  3. Nonclassic syndrome with cancer diagnosed within 5 years of neurological symptom development and positive antineuronal antibodies
  4. Neurological syndrome (classic or not) without cancer and with well-characterized antineuronal antibodies
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Syndromes or Disease Entities That Have Been Associated with Polycystic Ovaries

A- Hyperandrogenism

o Steroidogenic enzyme deficiencies

§ Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

§ Aromatase deficiency

o Androgen-secreting tumors

§ Ovarian

§ Adrenal

o Exogenous androgens

§ Anabolic steroids

§ Transsexual hormone replacement

o Other

§ Acne

§ Idiopathic hirsutism

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Diagnostic Criteria in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Revised diagnostic criteria of PCOS

1999 criteria (both 1 and 2)

1. Chronic anovulation

2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, and exclusion of other aetiologies

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Criteria for the Metabolic Syndrome

ATP III Definition

Any three or more of the following criteria:

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Diagnosis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

MEN1, MEN2, and MEN4 comprise a series of familial disorders involving the simultaneous occurrence of tumors in more than one endocrine organ, collectively known as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Patients with this family of disorders develop tumors of the parathyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, and thyroid gland, along with miscellaneous neuroendocrine tumors of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Continue reading