Tools for the diagnosis of GHD include auxology, radiographic assessment of bone age, measurement of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), provocative growth hormone (GH) testing, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, in certain cases, genetic testing. Growth velocity and the degree of short stature are primary considerations in the decision to pursue evaluation for GHD. Continue reading
Breast cancer (BC) hormonal receptors status is assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a specific, sensitive, and accessible method that guide breast cancer treatment. Continue reading
The SOFA system was created in a consensus meeting of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine in 1994 and further revised in 1996. The SOFA is a six-organ dysfunction/failure score measuring multiple organ failure daily. Each organ is graded from 0 (normal) to 4 (the most abnormal), providing a daily score of 0 to 24 points. The objective in the development of the SOFA was to create a simple, reliable, and continuous score easily obtained in every institution.
Clinical Predictors of Increased Perioperative Cardiovascular Risk (Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, Death)
- Unstable coronary syndromes
- Acute or recent MI* with evidence of important ischemic risk by clinical symptoms or noninvasive study
- Unstable or severe† angina (Canadian class III or IV) Continue reading