Acute cholecystitis is a very common complication of cholelithiasis, and as such is frequently encountered in surgical practice. TG07 diagnostic criteria are recognized as those to be recommended in current care for acute cholecystitis.
The death of a loved one is one of life’s greatest, universal stressors to which most bereaved individuals successfully adapt without clinical intervention. For a minority of bereaved individuals, grief is complicated by superimposed problems and healing does not occur. The resulting syndrome of complicated grief causes substantial distress and functional impairment even years after a loss, yet knowing when and how to intervene can be a challenge.
The updated American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol (GTBC) has been long-awaited since the latest update of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines in 2004. The updated GTBC recommends a significant paradigm shift in lipid-loweringdrug therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk reduction, which has led to questions regarding their content and their implementation.
The incidence of cervical cancer, as well as mortality rates from the disease, has decreased over the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently published a clinical management guideline on cervical cytology screening.
As defined by the American Thyroid Association’s task force on the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, a thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that is radiologically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma.
The finding of hypercalcemia on routine biochemical testing or in the evaluation of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is typically the initial clue to the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. The total serum calcium level, which combines both the free and albumin-bound components of circulating calcium, should be adjusted for the level of albumin. Measurement of ionized calcium may be useful in selected cases, such as in patients with hyperalbuminemia, thrombocytosis, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, and myeloma; these patients may have elevated levels of total serum calcium, but normal levels of ionized serum calcium (artifactual hypercalcemia).
The rationale for screening is that early detection and treatment of asymptomatic cancers could extend life, as compared with treatment at the time of clinical diagnosis. The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has nearly doubled the lifetime risk of receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Anaemia is a frequent finding in cancer patients and should be carefully assessed. Additional causes of anaemia such as iron deficiency, bleeding, nutritional defects or haemolysis should be corrected prior to erythropoietic protein therapy. The following recommendations are related to adult cancer patients with solid tumours or haematological malignancies:
The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recently reviewed risk factors and developed objective major and minor criteria to identify patients who require direct admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The most up-to-date definitions use need for invasive mechanical ventilation or septic shock, requiring vasopressors, as absolute indicators for direct admission to an ICU. For patients who do not meet either of these two major criteria, minor criteria have been proposed that are based on CURB-65 and ATS criteria with new additions. For admission to an ICU or high level unit, patients must fulfill at least three of these minor criteria.