Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) include percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stenting. Primary indications are treatment of angina pectoris (stable or unstable), myocardial ischemia, and acute MI (particularly in patients with developing or established cardiogenic shock).
The American Thoracic Society Pulmonary Function Standards Committee developed guidelines for the 6MWT in clinical settings. The 6MWT was chosen because it is easier to administer, better tolerated, and better reflects activities of daily living than other walk tests.
Intracranial endovascular cerebrovascular interventions treat cerebrovascular diseases by use of minimally invasive intravascular techniques.
In contrast to macroadenomas, for which therapy is routinely indicated, microadenomas do not always require treatment. For patients with microadenomas who do not have these indications, symptoms and prolactin levels can be monitored, and MRI can be used to follow the size of the tumor.
- Recent history of acute biliary pancreatitis
- Recent history of jaundice
- Recent history of cholangitis
- Abnormal preoperative ultrasound demonstrating a dilated common bile duct or a defect (stone) in the common bile duct
- Evidence of common bile duct obstruction on hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan (HIDA Scan)
- Increased serum bilirrubin
- Increased serum alkaline phophatase
- Increased serum amylase
Indications of dialysis in acute renal failure (ARF)
- Severe fluid overload
- Refractory hypertension
- Uncontrollable hyperkalemia
- Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, gastritis with hemorrhage
- Lethargy, malaise, somnolence, stupor, coma, delirium, asterixis, tremor, seizures,
- Pericarditis (risk of hemorrhage or tamponade)
- bleeding diathesis (epistaxis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and etc.)
- Severe metabolic acidosis
- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) > 70 – 100 mg/dl Continue reading
Indications for chest drain insertion
- in any ventilated patient
- tension pneumothorax after initial needle relief
- persistent or recurrent pneumothorax after simple aspiration
- large secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in patients over 50 years Continue reading
Removal of abdominal fluid is of value in evaluating patients with ascites of new onset or unknown etiology, and provides symptomatic relief in patients with known disease or in the setting of a decompensating clinical state. Abdominal paracentesis is a simple procedure that may be performed rapidly and with a minimum of equipment.