Diagnosis of Inhalation Injury

Inhalation injury can feature supraglottic thermal injury, chemical irritation of the respiratory tract, systemic toxicity due to agents such as carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide, or a combination of these insults. The resultant inflammatory response may cause higher fluid resuscitation volumes, progressive pulmonary dysfunction, prolonged
ventilator days, increased risk of pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Continue reading

Classification of Burn Injury

A burn is an injury to the skin or other organic tissue primarily caused by heat or due to radiation, radioactivity, electricity, friction or contact with chemicals. Skin injuries due to ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals, as well as respiratory damage resulting from smoke inhalation, are also considered to be burns. Continue reading

Universal Definitions of Myocardial Injury and Myocardial Infarction

With the introduction of more sensitive cardiac biomarkers, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) collaborated to redefine MI using a biochemical and clinical approach, and reported that myocardial injury detected by abnormal biomarkers in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia should be labelled as MI. Continue reading

Classifications of Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease

Recently developed consensus functional definitions on the basis of specific changes in the serum creatinine concentration and urine volume now complement anatomical approaches to diagnosis.

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Definition and Classification/Staging System for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

In 2004, the ADQI group and representatives from three nephrology societies established the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Its intentions are to facilitate international, interdisciplinary and intersocietal collaborations and to ensure progress in the field of AKI, including the development of uniform standards for the definition and classification of AKI. As part of this process, the RIFLE nomenclature and classification was modified to a staging/classification system differentiating between AKI stage I, II and III. In addition, a 48-hour time window for the diagnosis of AKI was introduced to ensure that the process was acute.

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