The clinical characteristics of mold infections of the CNS warrant assessment for possible biopsy and neurosurgical intervention. A definitive diagnosis almost invariably requires a biopsy, with prompt inspection of the specimen by means of wet-mount preparation with calcofluor white stain, culture, and histologic analysis (with Gomori methenamine silver stain and periodic acid–Schiff stain). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis may be helpful if cultures of biopsy specimens are negative.
Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) include percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stenting. Primary indications are treatment of angina pectoris (stable or unstable), myocardial ischemia, and acute MI (particularly in patients with developing or established cardiogenic shock).