Delirium is also known as acute confusional state, altered mental status, and toxic metabolic encephalopathy, among more than 30 descriptive terms. Delirium can be thought of as acute brain failure and is the final common pathway of multiple mechanisms, similar to acute heart failure. The official definition of delirium in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), requires a disturbance in attention and awareness that develops acutely and tends to fluctuate. The pathophysiological mechanisms of delirium remain poorly understood; leading models include neurotransmitter imbalance and neuroinflammation. Continue reading →
Narcolepsy is characterized by permanent, overwhelming feelings of sleepiness and fatigue. Other symptoms include abnormalities of dreaming sleep, such as dream-like hallucinations and feeling physically weak or paralyzed for a few seconds. Continue reading →
(2) at least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one (or more) of the following:
persistent concern about having additional attacks
worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences (e.g., losing control, having a heart attack, “going crazy”)
a significant change in behavior related to the attacks
B- Presence or Absence of Agoraphobia
C- The Panic Attacks are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).
D- The Panic Attacks not better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as Social Phobia (e.g., occurring on exposure to feared social situations), Specific Phobia (e.g., on exposure to a specific phobic situation), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (e.g., on exposure to dirt in someone with an obsession about contamination), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (e.g., in response to stimuli associated with a severe stressor), or Separation Anxiety Disorder (e.g., in response to being away from home or close relatives).
DSM-IV. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC.
This material was taken from the DSM-IV. It is intended for educational purposes only.
This classification equates with that of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and that of World Health Organization/ International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH), and is based on clinic blood pressure values. If systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure fall into different categories, the higher value should be taken for classification. Continue reading →
A. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. Continue reading →
A. Recurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following:
Eating, in a discrete period of time (e.g., within any 2-hour period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances.
A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (e.g., a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating).
A. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height (e.g., weight loss leading to maintenance of body weight less than 85% of that expected; or failure to make expected weight gain during period of growth, leading to body weight less than 85% of that expected).
B. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.
A maladaptive pattern of alcohol use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three or more of the following seven criteria, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period: