The Ross Heart Failure Classification was developed to provide a global assessment of heart failure severity in infants, and has subsequently been modified to apply to all pediatric ages. The modified Ross Classification incorporates feeding difficulties, growth problems, and symptoms of exercise intolerance into a numeric score comparable with the NYHA classification for adults.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines malnutrition as the cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions.
Malnutrition generally implies undernutrition and refers to all deviations from adequate and optimal nutritional status in infants, children and in adults. In children, undernutrition manifests as underweight and stunting (short stature), while severely undernourished children present with the symptoms and signs that characterize conditions known as kwashiorkor, marasmus or marasmic-kwashiorkor.
The International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ICROP) was published in 2 parts, the first in 1984 and later expanded in 1987. It was a consensus statement of an international group of retinopathy of prematurity experts.
In unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, the ultimate goal is the prevention of kernicterus and its potentially devastating effects.
Phototherapy represented an important advance in the treatment of jaundice, enabling the effective and relatively rapid reduction of high bilirubin levels and facilitating the prevention of kernicterus.
Exchange transfusion is the only alternative to phototherapy for controlling hyperbilirubinaemia.
The Rochester criteria were developed to identify febrile infants aged 60 days or younger at low-risk of bacterial infection and do not include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing.
Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children
- Decreased inspiratory breath sounds
- Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles
- Cyanosis breathing room air
- Decreased level of normal activity/function
- Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)
A diagnosis of AOM requires:
a history of acute onset of signs and symptoms,
the presence of middle-ear effusion (MEE), and
signs and symptoms of middle-ear inflammation.
One or more typical phenotypic features of CF:
Chronic sinopulmonary disease
Characteristic gastrointestinal and nutritional abnormalities
Salt loss syndromes
- Born at term (gestational age >/= 37 weeks)with uncomplicated nursery stay
- Previously healthy infants
- No toxic manifestations
- No focal bacterial infection (except otitis media) Continue reading
Male or female patient with reduced numbers of CD3+ T cells (less than 500/mm3) and two of the three following characteristics: