Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstructive apneas and hypopneas during sleep, frequently followed by transient hemoglobin desaturation (hypoxemia) and unconscious (EEG) arousals.
Indications for chest drain insertion
- in any ventilated patient
- tension pneumothorax after initial needle relief
- persistent or recurrent pneumothorax after simple aspiration
- large secondary spontaneous pneumothorax in patients over 50 years Continue reading
Wells Clinical Prediction Rule for Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Continue reading
Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is firm when chest radiographic evidence is accompanied by compatible clinical features and noncaseating granulomas on biopsy, with all other causes of granulomas ruled out.
Biopsy is indicated for all patients presumed to have sarcoidosis, except those with Löfgren’s syndrome.
Criteria for Chronic Respiratory Failure due to Cardiopulmonary Disorders in Infants and Children
Decreased inspiratory breath sounds
Increased retractions, use of accessory muscles
Cyanosis breathing room air
Decreased level of normal activity/function
Poor weight gain (mass) (IMPORTANT)
CURB and CRB-65 scores can be used in the hospital and out-patients setting to assess pneumonia severity and the risk of death.
The Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer is an internationally accepted system used to characterize the extent of disease. The TNM system combines features of the tumor into disease stage groups that correlate with survival and are linked to recommendations for treatment.
The hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized as the triad of liver disease, pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities leading to arterial deoxygenation and evidence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations.
Exclusion of other known causes of ILD such as certain drug toxicities, environmental exposures, and connective tissue diseases
Abnormal pulmonary function studies that include evidence of restriction (reduced VC, often with an increased FEV1/FVC ratio) and impaired gas exchange [increased P(A–a)O2, decreased PaO2 with rest or exercise or decreased DLCO]
Bibasilar reticular abnormalities with minimal ground glass opacities on HRCT scans
Transbronchial lung biopsy or BAL showing no features to support an alternative diagnosis
Transudative and exudative pleural effusions are distinguished by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protein levels in the pleural fluid. Exudative pleural effusions meet at least one of the following criteria, whereas transudative pleural effusions meet none: