Hypertension is the most common condition seen in primary care and leads to myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure, and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. Patients want to be assured that blood pressure (BP) treatment will reduce their disease burden, while clinicians want guidance on hypertension management using the best scientific evidence. Continue reading
Screening is recommended for type 2 diabetes because reliable tests are available, and lifestyle changes and medications reduce progression and adverse sequelae of the disease, even in persons who are initially asymptomatic. Continue reading
Hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in the glycemic management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recommendations from the International Hypoglycaemia Study Group regarding the classification of hypoglycemia considers a blood glucose <54 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L) detected by self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (for at least 20 min), or laboratory measurement of plasma glucose as sufficiently low to indicate serious, clinically significant hypoglycemia that should be included in reports of clinical trials of glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of diabetes. However, a glucose alert value of </=70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) can be important for therapeutic dose adjustment of glucose-lowering drugs in clinical care and is often related to symptomatic hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia is defined as severe cognitive impairment requiring assistance from another person for recovery.
Although the use of resuscitation fluids is one of the most common interventions in medicine, no currently available resuscitation fluid can be considered to be ideal. In light of recent high quality evidence, a reappraisal of how resuscitation fluids are used in acutely ill patients is now required. The selection, timing, and doses of intravenous fluids should be evaluated as carefully as they are in the case of any other intravenous drug, with the aim of maximizing efficacy and minimizing iatrogenic toxicity.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) recommend diabetes screening beginning at 45 years of age; the ADA advises earlier screening in patients with risk factors.
Intracranial endovascular cerebrovascular interventions treat cerebrovascular diseases by use of minimally invasive intravascular techniques.
In addition to the prediction of cardiovascular risk, ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring, when used in conjunction with clinic blood-pressure assessments, is of potential value in a variety of other clinical conditions. Some of these conditions are:
- Initiating treatment with methotrexate or Arava (leflunomide) was recommended for most rheumatoid arthritis patients.
- Methotrexate plus Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) was recommended for rheumatoid arthritis patients with moderate to high disease activity.
- Provide advice on life-style modifications for all people with high blood pressure (BP) and those with borderline or high-normal BP. Continue reading