Revised Banff 2017 Classification of Antibody-Mediated Rejection (ABMR) in Renal Allografts

The Banff classification represented the first attempt to formulate an international, consensus based and structured classification system for the diagnosis and categorization of renal allograft biopsy pathology with a particular focus on the development of the morphological criteria for the diagnosis and classification of rejection. Continue reading

Definition and Classification/Staging System for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

In 2004, the ADQI group and representatives from three nephrology societies established the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Its intentions are to facilitate international, interdisciplinary and intersocietal collaborations and to ensure progress in the field of AKI, including the development of uniform standards for the definition and classification of AKI. As part of this process, the RIFLE nomenclature and classification was modified to a staging/classification system differentiating between AKI stage I, II and III. In addition, a 48-hour time window for the diagnosis of AKI was introduced to ensure that the process was acute.

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Indications of Dialysis in Renal Failure

Indications of dialysis in acute renal failure (ARF)

  • Severe fluid overload
  • Refractory hypertension
  • Uncontrollable hyperkalemia
  • Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, gastritis with hemorrhage
  • Lethargy, malaise, somnolence, stupor, coma, delirium, asterixis, tremor, seizures,
  • Pericarditis (risk of hemorrhage or tamponade)
  • bleeding diathesis (epistaxis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and etc.)
  • Severe metabolic acidosis
  • Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) > 70 – 100 mg/dl Continue reading

Definition and Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

NKF Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Kidney damage for three or more months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased GFR, manifested by pathologic abnormalities or markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine or abnormalities in imaging tests

  • GFR < 60 mL per minute per 1.73 m2 for three months or more, with or without kidney damage

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