Since the first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in 1981, surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (the cause of AIDS) and AIDS have undergone several revisions to respond to diagnostic advances. Continue reading
The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) charged a workgroup with the task of developing criteria for the symptomatic predementia phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), referred to in this article as mild cognitive impairment due to AD. Continue reading
The Banff classification represented the first attempt to formulate an international, consensus based and structured classification system for the diagnosis and categorization of renal allograft biopsy pathology with a particular focus on the development of the morphological criteria for the diagnosis and classification of rejection. Continue reading
The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these.
This simplified revised set of diagnostic criteria may facilitate its more uniform and widespread applicability in different clinical scenarios and environments. Continue reading
The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) consensus updates the disease definition of multiple myeloma to include validated biomarkers in addition to existing requirements of attributable CRAB features (hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, and bone lesions). Continue reading
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is often caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2).
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO; Devic syndrome) is a clinically defined, severe CNS demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis (ON) and acute myelitis; the presence of CNS symptoms outside the optic nerves and spinal cord has until recently excluded the diagnosis.
I. Ocular symptoms: a positive response to at least one of the following questions:
Have you had daily, persistent, troublesome dry eyes for more than 3 months?
Do you have a recurrent sensation of sand or gravel in the eyes?
Do you use tear substitutes more than 3 times a day?
- Idiopathic insomnia: Insomnia arising in infancy or childhood with a persistent, unremitting course
- Psychophysiologic insomnia: Insomnia due to a maladaptive conditioned response in which the patient learns to associate the bed environment with heightened arousal rather than sleep; onset often associated with an event causing acute insomnia, with the sleep disturbance persisting despite resolution of the precipitating factor
- Paradoxical insomnia (sleep-state misperception): Insomnia characterized by a marked mismatch between the patients description of sleep duration and objective polysomnographic findings Continue reading