Breast cancer (BC) hormonal receptors status is assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a specific, sensitive, and accessible method that guide breast cancer treatment. Continue reading
PI-RADS is designed to improve focal lesion detection, localization, characterization, and risk stratification in patients with suspected cancer and consists of technical recommendation for MRI acquisition and a scoring system for image interpretation. PI-RADS uses a scale of 1–5 to report the overall probability of clinically significant prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). The use of PI-RADS is limited to treatment naive patients and it should not be used for staging, assessment of treatment outcome, recurrence, or progression during surveillance.
The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), an accepted method of quantifying disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) consists of an eight-function system scale monitoring motor, sensory, cerebellar, brain stem, visual, bowel and bladder, pyramidal and other functions.
Grading of hepatic encephalopathy categorizes it in clinical stages of stepwise worsening. The description of each grade varies somewhat in the literature, but differences between adjacent grades are clear enough to be helpful in clinical practice, although neurologic descriptors are sparse. One study showed that for patients who become comatose, the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score is more discriminating than the West Haven grading system because it includes brain-stem and respiration assessment, which are not further differentiated in the West Haven system.
The use of the Alvarado scoring system, which includes clinical examination findings and laboratory values, is helpful in ruling out appendicitis. Scores range from 1 to 10, with higher scores indicating a greater risk of appendicitis. When the score is less than 4, appendicitis is uncommon, and imaging and other interventions can be avoided.
Risk assessment tools can incorporate multiple variables to identify patients or subpopulations at risk for events. A recently developed risk score can identify cancer patients at high risk for VTE using a combination of easily available clinical and laboratory variables.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a clinicopathological diagnosis of a disorder that is defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) as “an acquired syndrome characterized by the intravascular activation of coagulation with loss of localization arising from different causes”. This condition typically originates in the microvasculature and can cause damage of such severity that it leads to organ dysfunction. It can be identified on the basis of a scoring system developed by the ISTH.
Two scales are in common use, the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC).
The Glasgow Blatchford Score (GBS) is a pre-endoscopic risk assessment tool for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). It can predict need for intervention or death and identifies low risk patients suitable for out-patient management.
The Rockall score is an established and useful system to assess upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The Rockall system has been shown to represent an accurate and valid predictor of rebleeding and death, performing better in the latter than in the former. Rockall scores are designed to combine information such as the subject’s age, occurrence of shock assessed from systolic blood pressure readings and pulse rate, presence and severity of comorbid conditions, diagnosis and endoscopic stigmata of recent bleeding.