Diagnostic Scoring System for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a clinicopathological diagnosis of a disorder that is defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) as “an acquired syndrome characterized by the intravascular activation of coagulation with loss of localization arising from different causes”. This condition typically originates in the microvasculature and can cause damage of such severity that it leads to organ dysfunction. It can be identified on the basis of a scoring system developed by the ISTH.

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The Rockall Scoring System

The Rockall score is an established and useful system to assess upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). The Rockall system has been shown to represent an accurate and valid predictor of rebleeding and death, performing better in the latter than in the former. Rockall scores are designed to combine information such as the subject’s age, occurrence of shock assessed from systolic blood pressure readings and pulse rate, presence and severity of comorbid conditions, diagnosis and endoscopic stigmata of recent bleeding.

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Scoring the BODE Index

The BODE is a multidimensional index designed to assess clinical risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It combines four important variables into a single score: (B) body mass index; (O) airflow obstruction measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); (D) dyspnoea measured by the modified Medical Research Council (MRC) scale; and (E) exercise capacity measured by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Each component is graded and a score out of 10 is obtained, with higher scores indicating greater risk. The BODE index reflects the impact of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary factors on prognosis and survival in COPD.

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