Screening is recommended for type 2 diabetes because reliable tests are available, and lifestyle changes and medications reduce progression and adverse sequelae of the disease, even in persons who are initially asymptomatic. Continue reading
In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 “principles” for evaluating screening programs, criteria widely used since then.
The initial screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome should include specific questions about the patient’s personal and family history of breast and ovarian cancers, risk assessment, education, and counseling.
The incidence of cervical cancer, as well as mortality rates from the disease, has decreased over the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recently published a clinical management guideline on cervical cytology screening.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) recommend diabetes screening beginning at 45 years of age; the ADA advises earlier screening in patients with risk factors.
The rationale for screening is that early detection and treatment of asymptomatic cancers could extend life, as compared with treatment at the time of clinical diagnosis. The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has nearly doubled the lifetime risk of receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Characteristics of the disease
1. Disease has serious consequences
2. Screening population has a high incidence* of disease
3. Risk factor is a good predictor of disease