The pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) may be primary (idiopathic intracranial hypertension) or arise from an identifiable secondary cause. Characterization of typical neuroimaging abnormalities, clarification of normal opening pressure in children, and features distinguishing the syndrome of intracranial hypertension without papilledema from intracranial hypertension with papilledema have furthered our understanding of this disorder. Continue reading →
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thrombosis, complications during pregnancy, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) in plasma. Continue reading →
The Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited syndrome associated with colorectal cancer, accounting for 3% of new diagnoses; it is also associated with extracolonic cancers, the most common of which is endometrial cancer.
The Lynch syndrome phenotype includes a propensity for cancers of the proximal colon, poor tumor differentiation with mucinous or signet-ring cell histologic features or a medullary growth pattern, abundant infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor, and synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancers. Continue reading →
The Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome (CAPS) is a rare life-threatening form of Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) in which widespread intravascular thrombosis results in multiorgan ischemia and failure. CAPS is the initial presentation of APS in nearly half of patients, while the remaining half has a history of APS. Continue reading →
POEMS syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome due to an underlying plasma cell disorder (PCD). The acronym, which was coined by Bardwick in 1980, refers to several, but not all, of the features of the syndrome: polyradiculoneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal PCD, and skin changes. Continue reading →
A diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome is often made on the basis of a classic triad of symptoms: dryness of the mouth and eyes, fatigue, and pain. Systemic complications, which are present in 30 to 40% of patients, may provide the first clues to the disease.
The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).
The initial screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome should include specific questions about the patient’s personal and family history of breast and ovarian cancers, risk assessment, education, and counseling.
Sézary Syndrome corresponds to 3% of all cutaneous lymphomas, and it is characterized by a triad of manifestations: erythrodermia with pruritus, limphonodomegalia and atypical circulating lymphocytes (referred to as Sézary or Lutzner cells). Associated clinical manifestations include lagophthalmos, alopecia, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and onycodystrophy. Erythrodermia may be the progression of previous patches and plaques, developing from idiopathic erythrodermia or emerging de novo.