Berlin Definition of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

The Berlin definition, proposed in 2012, breaks with tradition by establishing three risk strata that are based on the degree of hypoxemia as assessed at a minimum positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).

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Initial Screening for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome

The initial screening for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome should include specific questions about the patient’s personal and family history of breast and ovarian cancers, risk assessment, education, and counseling.

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Diagnostic Criteria in Sézary’s Syndrome (SS)

Sézary Syndrome corresponds to 3% of all cutaneous lymphomas, and it is characterized by a triad of manifestations: erythrodermia with pruritus, limphonodomegalia and atypical circulating lymphocytes (referred to as Sézary or Lutzner cells). Associated clinical manifestations include lagophthalmos, alopecia, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and onycodystrophy. Erythrodermia may be the progression of previous patches and plaques, developing from idiopathic erythrodermia or emerging de novo.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Serotonin Syndrome (SS)

Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from increased CNS serotonergic activity that is usually drug related. Symptoms may include mental status changes, hyperthermia, and autonomic and neuromuscular hyperactivity.

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Diagnostic Criteria for Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS)

The Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) or Landry-Guillain-Barre-Strohl syndrome, also known as post-infectious polyneuropathy or acute idiopathic polyneuritis, is an acute acquired, frequently severe, monophasic autoimmune illness of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). GBS manifests itself with the clinical picture characterised by gait disturbance, pain, weakness, rapidly ascending symmetric flaccid muscle paralysis, areflexia with distal predominance (involving lower motor neuron), sensory disturbance, variable autonomic involvement, and increased cerebrospinal fluid protein without pleocytosis.

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Criteria for Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS)

The evaluation of patients with suspected Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is complex and expensive, and the diagnosis is often a challenge for clinicians. Most patients initially suspected of having CS will not have this condition, and therefore efficient screening procedures are needed to identify the few patients who will need additional investigation in specialized centers.

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