Germ cell tumours of the testis are the commonest malignancy in men aged 20-40 years. Considerable therapeutic improvements in management—based on the cancer’s responsiveness to chemotherapy that contains platinum—mean that over 95% of these patients can now expect to be cured.
Hypothermia may be determined clinically on the basis of vital signs with the use of the Swiss staging system.
Cierny and Mader classified osteomyelitis based on the affected portion of the bone, the physiologic status of the host and the local environment. This classification lends itself to the treatment and prognosis of osteomyelitis; stage 1 (medullary osteomyelitis) can usually be treated with antibiotics alone, while stages 2, 3 and 4 (superficial, localized and diffuse osteomyelitis) usually require aggressive debridement, antimicrobial therapy and subsequent orthopedic reconstruction.
In 2004, the ADQI group and representatives from three nephrology societies established the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN). Its intentions are to facilitate international, interdisciplinary and intersocietal collaborations and to ensure progress in the field of AKI, including the development of uniform standards for the definition and classification of AKI. As part of this process, the RIFLE nomenclature and classification was modified to a staging/classification system differentiating between AKI stage I, II and III. In addition, a 48-hour time window for the diagnosis of AKI was introduced to ensure that the process was acute.
The Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) System
The Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer is an internationally accepted system used to characterize the extent of disease. The TNM system combines features of the tumor into disease stage groups that correlate with survival and are linked to recommendations for treatment.
The European Respiratory Society (ERS) diagnostic criteria for COPD include the following symptoms: coughing, sputum production and/or dyspnoea, as well as a history of exposure to risk factors for COPD. The diagnosis is confirmed by a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0.7 in spirometry, as sign of the airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.