Indications for Testing for Helicobacter pylori Infection

Testing for H. pylori is recommended in patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, or gastric mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma). Other recommended indications for testing include dyspepsia, prolonged use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or aspirin, unexplained iron-deficiency anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia. Continue reading

Criteria for Testing for Diabetes or Prediabetes in Asymptomatic Adults

“Prediabetes” is the term used for individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and indicates an increased risk for the future development of diabetes. IFG and IGT should not be viewed as clinical entities in their own right but rather risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). IFG and IGT are associated with obesity (especially abdominal or visceral obesity), dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension.

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Serologic Testing for the Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection

The antigens and antibodies associated with HBV infection include HBsAg (Australia antigen) and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) and antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe). At least one serologic marker is present during the different phases of HBV infection.

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Clinical Laboratory Testing in the Rheumatic Diseases

The diagnosis of rheumatologic diseases is based on clinical information, blood and imaging tests, and in some cases on histology. Blood tests are useful in confirming clinically suspected diagnosis and monitoring the disease activity. The tests should be used as adjuncts to a comprehensive history and physical examination.

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Medical Research Council (MRC) Scale for Muscle Strength

The muscle scale grades muscle power on a scale of 0 to 5 in relation to the maximum expected for that muscle.

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Indications and Contraindications for Tilt Table Testing

Indications

  • Recurrent syncope or single syncopal episode accompanied by physical injury or motor vehicle crash or occurring in a high risk setting (for example, pilot, surgeon, commercial vehicle driver) and no evidence of structural cardiovascular disease; or presence of structural cardiovascular disease but other causes of syncope ruled out by diagnostic testing

  • Syncope induced by or associated with exercise

  • Further evaluation of patients in whom an apparent specific cause of syncope has been established (for example, asystole, high atrioventricular block) but susceptibility to neurocardiogenic syncope may affect treatment plan

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