Classification of Ulcer-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

The Forrest classification is a widely used classification of ulcer-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding. It was initially developed to unify the description of ulcer bleeding for better communication amongst endoscopists. However, the Forrest Classification is now used as a tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk for bleeding, rebleeding and mortality. Continue reading

Wagner and the University of Texas Wound Classification Systems of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Wagner Classification of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Grade 0: No ulcer in a high risk foot.

Grade 1: Superficial ulcer involving the full skin thickness but not underlying tissues.

Grade 2: Deep ulcer, penetrating down to ligaments and muscle, but no bone involvement or abscess formation.

Grade 3: Deep ulcer with cellulitis or abscess formation, often with osteomyelitis.

Grade 4: Localized gangrene.

Grade 5: Extensive gangrene involving the whole foot.

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